|Goswin van der Weyden|
The Blood of Christ Freeing Souls in Purgatory
In this image by the grandson of the great
Rogier van der Weyden we see God the Father and the
dove of the Holy Spirit above a fountain filled with
the Blood of Christ, which two angels draw into
chalices and pour on the souls in Purgatory.
The Risen Jesus and Mary stand on either
side of the fountain. The painting is last known
in a sale in London in 1946.
(photo & info: http://www.iconclass.org/)
On the first of November the Church honored those who have attained the final glory of heaven with the feast of All Saints. The day after the Church turns our attention to another part of the Communion of Saints, those who, while no longer among the living, have not yet attained the goal of heaven. They form the second group described in the article on the three states of the Church found in the Catechism of the Catholic Church.
"When the Lord comes in glory, and all his angels with him, death will be no more and all things will be subject to him. But at the present time some of his disciples are pilgrims on earth. Others have died and are being purified, while still others are in glory, contemplating 'in full light, God himself triune and one, exactly as he is". 1
Those that “have died and are being purified” are the Souls for whom the Church prays on November 2nd. Their purification is occurring in a state called Purgatory. Purgatory is not hell. It is a temporary state, through which souls pass on their journey after death, where the residue of sin is purged away. The exact nature of the purgation through which they pass cannot be known on this side of the grave. Strong tradition suggests that it is a purgation by fire, but this is only supposition. The duration of the purgation is also unknown, for our concept of the passage of time has no meaning in eternity.
|Jacques de Besancon, Praying for the Souls in Purgatory|
from the Legenda aurea of Jacobus de Voragine
French (Paris), ca.1480-1490
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Francais 245, fol. 162
|Jean le Noir and collaborators|
Purged Souls Carried to Heaven
from Breviary of Charles V
French (Paris), ca.1364-1370
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Latin 1052, fol. 556v
Once the Last Judgment has taken place (sometime in the future) Purgatory will cease to exist.
Visions of Purgatory are not among the most common of images in the history of art. There are many more images of the Last Judgment, with its stark alternatives of heaven and hell. However, there is a history of purgatorial images to draw on.
Among the most common in the Middle Ages were images in Books of Hours, especially if the individual book of Hours included the Office for the Dead. From a limited search for these images I was struck by how similar many of the images were.
|Hugo van Woerden, Office of the Dead|
The Hague, Koninkllijk Bibliothek,
MS 76 G13, fol. 85v and 86r
|Masters of Dirc van Delf, Tafel van den Kersten Ghelove|
Netherlands (perhaps Utrecht), 1405-1410
New York, Morgan Library
MS M 691, fol.207r, detail
|Ludovico Carracci, Freeing the Souls in Purgatory|
Italian, ca. 1610
Vatican City, Vatican Pinacoteca
|Domenico di Michelino, Dante Illuminating Florence With His Poem|
Florence, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo
|Domenico di Michelino, Dante Illuminating Florence|
detail of Purgatory
• At the bottom of the mountain the souls of the recently dead who are saved but not purged approach the angelic gatekeeper to begin their upward journey.
• On the first ridge, we see the proud bowed beneath large rocks that keep them in a position which enables them to see sculptured reliefs illustrating the virtue of humility on the ground under their feet.
• On the second ridge, the envious sit with their eyes sewn shut, since it was through their eyes that they looked enviously on their fellow humans. Here the virtue is that of generosity.
• On the third, the wrathful wander about through smoke, representing the blindness that came upon them through their anger. The opposing virtue is meekness.
• On the fourth, the slothful run with urgency. The opposite virtue here is zeal.
• On the fifth, the greedy and the spendthrifts lie motionless, unable to move or help themselves. The opposing virtue is charity.
• On the sixth, the gluttons stand before trees laden with fruit that they cannot reach. Temperance is the corresponding virtue.
• On the seventh, the lustful pass through fire, representing the effects of their sin on the psyche. Chastity is the virtue here.
• At the top of the mountain, a man and woman who have passed through all the ridges have regained the original purity of Adam and Eve before the Fall and are now ready to advance into Paradise.
Purgatorio is undoubtedly my favorite part of the Divine Comedy. I reread it every few years, more frequently than I reread the other two parts. It has a wonderful atmosphere. All the souls seem happy and contented to be where they are. They know that they will ultimately enter heaven and seem happy to work toward their final cleansing from the baggage they brought with them from their earthly existence. There’s a sort of comfort in that, since almost everyone will bring similar baggage on departure.
Eternal rest grant unto them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them. May the souls of the faithful departed, through the mercy of God, rest in peace. Amen. (Traditional prayer for the Dead.)
1. Catechism of the Catholic Church, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City, 1993, Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 3, Article 9, Paragraph 5, Item 2, Number 954.
2. See above, Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 3, Article 9, Paragraph 5, Number 947.
Both citations may be found at http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P2B.HTM
© M. Duffy, 2011. Additional images added 2016.