Saturday, August 23, 2014

The Keys of the Kingdom

Guillaume Vrelant and workshop
From Hours of the Virgin
Belgian, ca. 1460
New York, Morgan Library
MS M 387, fol. 78v
“Jesus went into the region of Caesarea Philippi and
He asked His disciples, “Whom do people say that the Son of Man is?” 
They replied, “Some say John the Baptist, others Elijah,
still others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.” 
He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” 
Simon Peter said in reply,
“You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” 
Jesus said to him in reply,
“Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah. 
For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my heavenly Father.
 And so I say to you, you are Peter,
 and upon this rock I will build my church,
and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it. 
I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven. 
Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven;
and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.” 
Then He strictly ordered his disciples
to tell no one that He was the Christ.” 
Matthew 16:13-20 (Gospel for the Twenty-first Sunday of the Year, Year A)*

The important dialogue between Jesus and Peter that is related in this Gospel passage is one that has had profound importance for the development of the Church.  In it are contained the basis for the position of Peter among his fellow Apostles, for the primacy of Peter’s successors as Bishop of Rome in the authority of the Church, for the power of the papacy to guide the Church through time.  It is a passage that has been a problem for some, particularly during the development of the Protestant confessions, but it is one that has been celebrated frequently in Christian iconography from the earliest times.

Images of the “giving of the keys” or the “remission of the keys” or the “transfer of the keys” tend to fall into two principal types.  There are those that appear to be primarily symbolic, focusing only on the unadorned transfer of the keys from Jesus to Peter and there are those that set this event in the context of the complete Biblical passage.  In addition, there are also a few images that combine more than one Biblical text in their presentation of the transfer.   Usually, but not always, the scene is distinguished from the related depiction of the dialogue between the Risen Jesus and Peter on the shores of the Sea of Galilee in which Jesus asks Peter three times “Do you love me?” and, upon Peter’s triple “You know I love you”, tells him to “Feed my sheep” and “Feed my lambs”.   Clearly these two scenes establish Peter’s special responsibility for the direction of things following the Ascension, so it is obviously valid to relate them to one another.  And, finally, there are a few depictions that are unusual in one way or another.

Symbolic Images

Christ Giving the Keys to Peter
Mosaic from Mausoleum of Constantina
Roman, mid-4th Century, ca. 350
Rome, Santa Costanza
The earliest images, dating from the early Christian era through much of the middle ages and even into the modern era, are primarily symbolic images.  

Christ Presenting the Keys to St. Peter and the
Law to St. Paul
German (Westphalia) Ivory, ca. 1150-1200
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Cloisters
Visually they represent the transfer in a somewhat abstract manner.  There is no specific reference to location or setting of the narrative in the Gospel.  Usually the only figures are Jesus and St. Peter, though occasionally there may be one or more disciples standing nearby.  This concentration of figures into two or three distinguishes these images from the related “Traditio Legis” images (see here), which are also symbolic in nature.  In the Traditio legis images, which refer to the last instruction of Jesus to His disciples just before the Ascension, there are usually a larger number of figures, Christ is enthroned or is standing in the “philosopher” pose.  In the images of the transfer of the keys, both figures are usually standing, facing each other, and the keys are clearly being handed to Peter by Jesus.

These images begin to appear quite early, in fact shortly after the emergence of Christianity as a favored religion of the Roman Empire, i.e., in the middle of the fourth century, just a few decades after the issue of the Edict of Milan (313AD) by Constantine I.  In the mausoleum known as Santa Costanza in Rome, built for the burial of one of Constantine’s daughters, an apse mosaic offers the first depiction of the event.    In spite of the destruction that occurred during the late antique and early medieval period, we can trace it thereafter in a number of media:  manuscript painting, ivory carving, metalwork, sculpture and panel painting.


Christ Presenting the Keys to Peter
Enamel plaque
English, 1170-1180
Paris, Musee du Louvre
Christ Presenting the Keys to Peter
from a Gospel Lectionary
German (S. Swabia), 1200-1225
London, British Library
MS Egerton 809, fol. 41

Catalan Master of St. Mark. Christ Presenting the Keys to Peter
from Breviari d'Amor by Matfre Ermengau of Beziers
Catalan, 1375-1400
London, British Library
MS Yates Thompson 31, fol. 229 (detail)

Lorenzo Venziano, Christ Presenting the Keys to Peter
Italian, 1380
Venice, Museo Correr





















They become less plentiful toward the end of the middle ages, but never disappear entirely.
Giovanni Battista da Cassignola, Christ Presenting
the Keys to Peter
Italian, 1569
Rome, Church of Sant'Agostino

Dedication leaf, Christ Presenting the Keys to Peter
from an Address by the Diocese of Cologne to the Pope
German, 1848
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana



























Narrative Images

Master of the Book of Pericopes of Henreich II
From Pericopes of Henry II
German (Reichenau), 1007-1012
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
MS Clm 4452, fol. 142v








The narrative images, which mainly (though not entirely) superseded  symbolic images  by the end of the middle ages, show from the beginning a greater emphasis on the complete text of the Gospel passage, including more disciples in the picture.




From Sermons of Maurice de Sully
Italian, ca. 1320-1330
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Francais 187, fol. 35v

Master of St. Catherine, Triptych with Scenes
from the Lives of Job and St. Peter
Flemish, 1485-1490
Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz Museum

Masters of Otto van Moerdrecht
From History Bible
Dutch (Utrecht), ca. 1430
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliothek
MS 78 D 38 II, fol. 167r



















The earliest do not make reference to any kind of setting or location, as this was not a preoccupation of earlier medieval art.  But as the abilities of the artists and the interest of their patrons in the natural world grew, the scene quickly began to be moved into a recognizable landscape.  By the late fifteenth century, the complete inclusion of great detail and intent to show the scene as it might have transpired had been achieved.

Pietro Perugino
Italian, 1481-1482
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel
The culmination of this stage can be seen in the great fresco by Pietro Perugino that adorns the mid-level wall of the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican.   From this and the tapestry by Raphael that also hung in the Sistine (see below) later generations of artists simply repeated the formula.

Giambattista Castello
Italian, 1598
Paris, Musee du Louvre

Ambrogio Buonvicino
Italian, 1612-1614
Vatican City, St. Peter's Basilica



















Guido Reni
Italian, ca. 1620
Paris, Musee du Louvre
Palma Giovane (Palma the Younger)
Italian, 1625
New York, Morgan Library




















Nicolas Poussin
French, 1636-1637
Belvoir Castle, Collection of the Duke of Rutland
Nicolas Poussin
French, 1647
Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland




















Pierre Bergaigne
French, 1675-1700
Lille, Musee des Beaux-Arts











By the late Baroque period much drama was added to the scene, including swirling clouds inhabited by angels demonstrating their reactions to the events and sometimes holding symbolic references to the papal office.
Giambattista Pittoni
Italian, 1725-1750
Paris, Musee du Louvre
Matthaeus Guenther
German, 1740
Mittenwald, Church of Saints Peter and Paul





















Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
French, 1820
Montauban, Musee Ingres


James Tissot
French, 1888-1896
New York, Brooklyn Museum
(Tissot shows the moment of Peter's statement, just before Jesus
responds by confiding the keys.)















Crossover Images

Along with the symbolic and narrative traditions there are images that combine the event described by St. Matthew and that described by St. John (John 21:15-19), that is the dialogue at the Sea of Galilee following the Resurrection.  Often, it is hard to tell them apart, since they may or may not include the sheep.  One thing is, however, constant in these images and distinct from images depicting the passage from Matthew.  Jesus is always shown in his distinctively post-Resurrection garb.  This is that He appears naked above the waist, except for a loosely draped cloth.  These images all appear in the later, Baroque, period and draw their inspiration from Raphael’s beautiful tapestry design for the Sistine Chapel.  For more on the tapestry designs, see here and here.
Raphael, Cartoon for Sistine Chapel Tapestry
Italian, 1515
London, Victoria and Albert Museum
Otto van Veen
Flemish, 1608
Bordeaux, Musee des Beaux-Arts
Peter Paul Rubens
Flemish, 1613-1615
Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Gemaeldegaleris





















Jan Boeckhorst
Flemish, ca. 1660
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Unusual Images

There are also a few unusual images of the scene that I have found in my review.  One is by the fifteenth century (Quattrocento) Venetian painter, Carlo Crivelli.  It shows St. Peter receiving the keys not from the adult Jesus in a real world setting, but from the Infant Jesus, seated on His mother’s knees.  The scene is clearly shown as taking place in heaven, for mother and child are seated on a throne and surrounded by saints who are bishops and what appear to be Franciscan friars, one presumably being St. Francis and the other St. Anthony of Padua. 
Carlo Crivelli, Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints
Italian, 1488
Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Gemaeldegalerie
Finally, there is the unusual version of the scene created in relief by Donatello, the great fifteenth-century Florentine sculptor.  Donatello sets his depiction at the moment of the Ascension.  Jesus bends down to transfer the keys from what appears to be a throne that is rising toward the sky (indicated by its position relative to the trees and by the disciple who gestures upward). 
Donatello
Italian, 1428-1430
London, Victoria and Albert Museum

Of course, the keys are the great symbol of Peter’s authority, frequently used throughout the history of western art.  They are his primary iconographic symbol, seen from the far West to as far East as Russia, a steady reminder of the power to bind and to loose that was given to him by the Lord.
Anonymous Romanesque Sculptor, St. Peter
Egmond Tympanum
Dutch, 1112-1132
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Theophanes, St. Peter
Greek, ca. 1388
Moscow, Cathedral of the Annunciation













Fra Carnevale
Italian, 1450s
Milan, Pinacoteca di Brera


© M. Duffy, 2014
_______________________________________________________________________
*  Excerpts from the Lectionary for Mass for Use in the Dioceses of the United States of America, second typical edition © 2001, 1998, 1997, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC. Used with permission. All rights reserved. No portion of this text may be reproduced by any means without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

Sunday, August 17, 2014

Ilustrating Miracles: The Canaanite Woman

Jean-Germain Drouais, The Canaanite Woman
French, 1763
Rennes, Musee des Beaux-Arts
At that time, Jesus withdrew to the region of Tyre and Sidon. 
And behold, a Canaanite woman of that district came and called out,
“Have pity on me, Lord, Son of David! 
My daughter is tormented by a demon.” 
But Jesus did not say a word in answer to her. 
Jesus’ disciples came and asked him,
“Send her away, for she keeps calling out after us.”
He said in reply,
“I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”
But the woman came and did Jesus homage, saying, “Lord, help me.” 
He said in reply,
“It is not right to take the food of the children
and throw it to the dogs.” 
She said, “Please, Lord, for even the dogs eat the scraps
that fall from the table of their masters.” 
Then Jesus said to her in reply,
“O woman, great is your faith! 
Let it be done for you as you wish.” 
And the woman’s daughter was healed from that hour.”
Matthew 15:21-28 (Gospel for the 20th Sunday in Ordinary Time, Year A)*

Anonymous, Miracle of the Canaanite Woman
from Sermons of Maurice de Sully
Italian, ca. 1320-1330
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Francais 187, fol. 9v

This is one of the more curious miracles of Jesus, probably chosen for inclusion by Matthew from among many other possible cures because of its important statement of faith by a non-Jew.  

Masters of Otto Moerdrecht, Miracle of the Canaanite Woman
from Picture Bible
Dutch (Utrecht), ca. 1430
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliothek
MS 78 D 38 II, fol.164v
(In this image, the Apostles clearly make their annoyance visible.)
Her persistence and her statement of humble faith, accepting  of her non-Jewish status, yet confident that the love of God is not to be confined to one only the chosen people, earns the favor that she begged.    


Jean Colombe, Miracle of the Canaanite Woman
from Tres Riches Heures of the Duke of Berry
Flemish, ca. 1485
Chantilly, Musee de Conde
MS DB 65, fol. 164 r
(In this image Jesus is shown three times.  First, He is
shown turning away, deaf to her pleas.  Then, He is shown
right next to the first image, paying attention to her.
Finally, at the bottom, He is shown promising her daughter's healing.
The daughter is also shown in the right corner of the upper image.
She is lying in bed, being attended by a maid.)
To the early Christian community, unsure about its relationship with Judaism, this was in important reminder.  And it continues to be an important reminder to us.

However, in spite of its importance, not many artists seem to have chosen to illustrate the less well known miracles of Jesus, such as this miracle of the Canaanite woman seeking the cure of her tormented daughter.    Those I was able to uncover in a fairly intensive search of internet resources cluster in two time periods, the later middle ages and the Baroque. 
 Both eras were relatively confident periods, not peaceful (what era ever has been?) but not riven by the kinds of problems that foster uneasy beliefs, as was, for instance, the intervening period of the Reformation. 


The examples from the late middle ages all come from illuminated manuscripts, while the Baroque and later examples are primarily oil paintings.
  
Most focus on the encounter between the woman and Jesus, although most also include onlooking apostles.  A few also feature other figures, such as the woman’s daughter and servants, and may even include a dog as a reminder of the text of the Gospel passage. And, as time went on, the level of drama increased. 

Anonymous, Miracle of the Canaanite Woman
Italian, early 17th century
Toulouse, Musee des Augustins
(This lovely anonymous image shows the moment
when she pleads that the dogs eat the scraps that
fall from their master's table.)






Giovan Gioseffo dal Sole, Miracle of the Canaanite Woman
Italian, late 17th century
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
(This image shows the moment in which Jesus tells her
that her faith has gained her request.)

Jean-Germain Drouais, Miracle of the Canaanite Woman
French, 1784
Paris, Musee du Louvre
(This is a second, later, version of the same scene by Drouais
in the collection of the Musee des Beaux-Arts at Rennes.
Both show the dramatic moment in which Jesus both grants her
request and shields her from the Apostles protests. And, both

also show the effects of early archaeological explorations, with their 
inclusion of a pyramid next to a classical building.)


James Tissot, Jesus and the Canaanite Woman
French, 1888-1894
New York, Brooklyn Museum
(This interesting late 19th-century image by Tissot shows the
moment in a more archaeologically correct setting and costume.)


 © M. Duffy, 2104

________________________________________________
*  Excerpts from the Lectionary for Mass for Use in the Dioceses of the United States of America, second typical edition © 2001, 1998, 1997, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC. Used with permission. All rights reserved. No portion of this text may be reproduced by any means without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

Thursday, August 14, 2014

"New" Images of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary

Master of Claude de France, Assumption
from Prayer Book of Claude de France
French (Tours), ca. 1517
New York, Morgan Library
MS M 1166, fol. 23v
Photo:  Schecter Lee
On Friday we will be celebrating the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (August 15).  I wrote two essays a few years ago on the iconography of the death and assumption of Mary.  They can be found at these links.

I don't have any new material to add to the explanation of the iconography, but just today I found some gorgeous new images.  









Master of Claude de France, Dormition of the Virgin
from Prayer Book of Claude de France
French (Tours), ca. 1517
New York, Morgan Library
MS M 1166, fol. 23r
Photo:  Schecter Lee



I visited the Morgan Library today to see the current exhibition called "Miracles in Miniature: The Art of the Master of Claude de France".  
The images are indeed miracles in miniature and I plan to write about the exhibition very soon, but for now I want to share several that were encompassed within the show.  
Master of Claude de France, Coronation of the Virgin
from Prayer Book of Claude de France
French (Tours), ca. 1517
New York, Morgan Library
MS M 1166, fol. 24r
Photo:  Schecter Lee
Most of the illuminations were from the hand of the Master of Claude de France, an artist who flourished for a relatively short time (1508-1520 is the period named), at a turning point in the history of the art of the illustrated book.  He (or possibly she) belongs to the last generation of artists who practiced the very fine art of manuscript illumination.  These amazing works stand at the pinnacle of the art, with absolutely amazing detail crammed into the tiniest of spaces.  Little in the exhibition measures more than about 4 inches square!  The highly readable writing is the tiniest you've ever seen, provided you have good reading glasses! 

Jean Bourdichon, Assumption of the Virgin
from Book of Hours
French (Tours), ca. 1515
New York, Morgan Library
MS M732, fol. 56v
However, I found the most compelling image in the show to be a page from a much larger book, a Book of Hours, illuminated by Jean Bourdichon, who was the teacher of the Master of Claude de France.  It is a beautiful image of the Assumption, in which Mary, surrounded by a golden glow, is raised to heave by admiring angels lifting her on a cloud, as other cherubic angels cluster in the upper corners.  The whole is contained in a classical frame of columns with Corinthian capitals.  The image I was able to retrieve does not, by any stretch of the imagination, do the delicate coloring full justice.  

Sunday, August 10, 2014

Illustrating Miracles: Walking On Water

Master of Otto van Moerdrecht, Jesus Saving Peter From the Sea
From History Bible
Dutch (Utrecht), ca. 1430
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliothek
MS 78 D 38 II, fol. 163r


"During the fourth watch of the night,
he came toward them walking on the sea. 
When the disciples saw him walking on the sea they were terrified. 
“It is a ghost,” they said, and they cried out in fear. 
At once Jesus spoke to them, “Take courage, it is I; do not be afraid.” 
Peter said to him in reply,
“Lord, if it is you, command me to come to you on the water.” 
He said, “Come.” 
Peter got out of the boat and began to walk on the water toward Jesus. 
But when he saw how strong the wind was he became frightened;
and, beginning to sink, he cried out, “Lord, save me!” 
Immediately Jesus stretched out his hand and caught Peter,
and said to him, “O you of little faith, why did you doubt?” 
After they got into the boat, the wind died down. 
Those who were in the boat did him homage, saying,
“Truly, you are the Son of God.
Matthew 14:25-33 (Excerpt from the Gospel for the Nineteenth Sunday in Ordinary Time, Year A)*

With a few exceptions, two of which are shown below, the images prompted by the passage from the Gospel for this Sunday reveal an understanding of the events of this Gospel that runs very deep, for it focuses more on the results of the actions of Peter than only on the obvious miracle of Jesus' ability to walk on water.
James Tissot,Jesus Walking On Water
French, 1888-1894
New  York, Brooklyn Museum


Gustave Dore, Jesus Walking On Water
From Illustrated Bible
French, 1866






















Indeed, the majority of images can be divided roughly into two types, divided by the actions of Peter:  Before Foundering and After Foundering


Before Foundering 

Images from the "Before Foundering" group are few, probably because this type shows only the beginning of the story.  It sets up, as it were, the conditions of the main part of the story.

Among them are images showing Peter either stepping or jumping out of the boat in his eagerness to respond to Jesus’ command “Come.”

Master of Cabestany, Jesus Walking On Water
Catalan, ca. 1150
Barcelona, Museu Frederic Mares
Here Peter is ready to put one foot out of the boat.



Jesus Walking On Water
From Bible
Greek (Mistra), 1361-1362
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Grec 135, fol.  220v
This shows Peter diving into the water.

















Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Jesus Walks On Water
Italian, 1768-1770
Private Collection
Peter is starting to sink even as he exits the boat.




After Foundering

The principal, second group of images is far more numerous.  Here Peter, having impulsively left his boat and begun to walk on top of the sea, loses focus and faith due to the wind and waves.  He sinks into the water and reaches out with a cry to Jesus who pulls him to freedom and safety.

They are come from many eras, locations and media.  

Ottonian Master, Jesus Saves Peter From the Sea
From Codex Egberti
German (Trier), 977-993
Trier, Stadtbibliothek
MS 24, fol. 27v

 Jesus Saves Peter From the Sea
Mosaic from south side aisle Monreale Cathedral
Byzantine, 1180s
Monreale, Sicily, Cathedral




















Jesus Saves Peter From the Sea
From Picture Bible
French (Abbey of St. Bertin), 1190-1200
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliothek
MS 76 F 5, fol. 14r
Jesus Saves Peter From the Sea
From Psalter
English (Oxford), 1200-1225
London, British Library
MS Arundel 157, fol. 7v.






















Giotto, Jesus Saves Peter From the Sea (called the Navicella)
Mosaic from Old St. Peter's Basilica, partially reconstructed
Italian, ca. 1310
Vatican City, St. Peter's Basilica
Lorenzo Ghiberti, Jesus Saves Peter From the Sea
From North Doors of the Cathedral Baptistry
Italian, 1404-24
Florence, Cathedral, Baptistry



































Lluis Borassa, Jesus Saves Peter From the Sea
Catalan, 1411-1413
Terassa, Sant Pere
Bedford Master, Peter Foundering in the Sea
From Hours of the Virgin
French (Paris), 1430-1435
New York, The Morgan Library
MS M359, fol. 66r




















Follower of Loyset Liedet, Jesus Saving Peter From the Sea
From Bible Historiale of King Edward IV
Netherlands (Bruges), 1470-1479
London, British Library
MS Royal 15 D I, fol. 302v
Alessandro Allori, Jesus Saves Peter From the Sea
Italian, 1590s
Florence, Ufizzi Gallery
Odilon Redon, Jesus Saves Peter From the Sea
French, 1885
Paris, Musee du Louvre, Departement des Arts Graphiques





James Tissot, Jesus Saves Peter From the Sea
French, 1884-1896
New York, Brooklyn Museum

























They are reminders to us that the point of the story is not solely that, as God and Lord of Creation, Jesus could walk on water, but that if we have faith we too can do amazing things.  Further, that even when our faith is tested or our courage fails and we are found weak, He is able to save us when we call out to Him.

© M. Duffy 2014
__________________________________________________________
*  Excerpts from the Lectionary for Mass for Use in the Dioceses of the United States of America, second typical edition © 2001, 1998, 1997, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC. Used with permission. All rights reserved. No portion of this text may be reproduced by any means without permission in writing from the copyright owner.