|Fra Angelico, Crucifixion with|
St. Dominic in Prayer
Florence, Convento di San Marco
Meditation has been part of the Christian experience since the very beginning.
Following the Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus, His followers spent ten days in prayer and reflection. On the tenth day they received the gift of the Holy Spirit, which was the impetus to go forth and tell the world about Jesus, His life, His death, His resurrection. Following his dramatic conversion, St. Paul did not go out immediately to preach. Instead he withdrew, first into Arabia, then into Syria, spending three years in reflection before going to Jerusalem to meet Peter and James (Galatians 1:17-19).
In the early centuries of Christianity, men and women withdrew themselves from society and took to the deserts of the Holy Land, of Egypt and of North Africa to meditate on the Scriptures, to pray and to practice asceticism. They are collectively known as the Desert Fathers and Desert Mothers and they became models for the first Christian monks and nuns.
Meditation is an integral part of the medieval (and modern) practice of Lectio Divina (Divine Reading), wherein (ideally) one thoughtfully reads a passage in Scripture (lectio), ponders it (meditation), talks to God about it (prayer) and, finally, waits in silence (mental and verbal) for God to enlighten the mind and heart.
Meditations usually begin from the text of Scripture, but they can also develop from viewing an object, such as a crucifix or icon, or a narrative scene, based on Scripture, that has been painted or sculpted. Paintings and sculpture can, in fact, themselves be meditations. And some of these painted and sculpted meditations are my subject for this Holy Week. Among the artists whose work will be discussed are: Fra Angelico, Andrea Mantegna, Michelangelo, Petrus Christus, Carpaccio, Rosso, Titian, Zurbaran and Philippe de Champaigne. Among the themes discussed will be: the Mocking of Christ, the Ecce Homo image, the Man of Sorrows image and the Dead Christ.
© M. Duffy, 2012
1. Oxford English Dictionary, Third edition, June 2001; online version March 2012 at: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/115756