Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Iconography of the Resurrection -- Jesus the Gardener

Fra Bartolomeo, Noli Me Tangere
Italian, c. 1506
Paris, Musee du Louvre
Jesus is carrying a hoe

“Mary stayed outside the tomb weeping. And as she wept, she bent over into the tomb and saw two angels in white sitting there,
one at the head and one at the feet where the Body of Jesus had been.

And they said to her, “Woman, why are you weeping?”
She said to them, “They have taken my Lord,
and I don’t know where they laid him.”

When she had said this, she turned around and saw Jesus there,
but did not know it was Jesus.
Jesus said to her, “Woman, why are you weeping?
Whom are you looking for?”
She thought it was the gardener and said to him,
“Sir, if you carried him away, tell me where you laid him, and I will take him.”
Jesus said to her, “Mary!” 
She turned and said to him in Hebrew, “Rabbouni,” which means Teacher.
Jesus said to her, “Stop holding on to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father.
But go to my brothers and tell them, ‘I am going to my Father and your Father,
to my God and your God.’”

Mary went and announced to the disciples, “I have seen the Lord,”
and then reported what he had told her.”
(John 20:11-18)

Noli Me Tangere
German, c. 1300-1350
Mendig, Niedermendig, Catholic Parish Church
 of Saint Cyriacus
Jesus is shown carrying a shovel.

The dramatic encounter of Mary Magdalene and Jesus on Easter morning, as told in the Gospel of St. John, is known as the iconographic subject called the "Noli me tangere", from Christ's admonition "Stop holding on to me!" to her.  In 2011 I reviewed some of the images associated with this iconography. This year I decided to update that essay (and many others) with some new images.  Over the last several years the amount of material available for art research on the internet has expanded incredibly and many more images are now available for studying these subjects.

Master Francois and Collaborators, Noli Me Tangere, the Women
at the Tomb, the Tomb Guards Reporting the Resurrection to
the Priests
from Speculum historiale by Vincentius Bellovacensis
French, 15th Century
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Francais 50, fol. 233
At the far left in the upper register the Risen Jesus carries a shovel.

In the course of looking at newly available images of the Noli me tangere type I was struck by something that had not been so obvious six years ago.  There is an iconographical offshoot of the subject that focuses on just one portion of a sentence in the Gospel narrative and weaves a story out of it.  This is the subject of the Risen Jesus depicted in the Noli me tangere image as a gardener.

Master of the Flemish Boethius. Noli Me Tangere
from Vita Jesu Christi by Ludolphe de Saxe
French, c. 1480
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Francais 181, fol. 155
This Jesus carries a shovel and wears a farmer's hat.

 In the Gospel, John explains Mary's initial inability to recognize the Risen Jesus by saying that "She thought it was the gardener" (John 20:15).  This is, of course, in keeping with the Gospel reports of others who failed to recognize Him after the Resurrection.  In some way He was the same, but different and, in a certain sense, He seems to have veiled Himself from them in order for Him to recognize them first.  Thus it is with Mary to whom He speaks and with the disciples at Emmaus with whom He breaks bread and with the larger group of disciples on the shore of the Lake of Galilee when He invites them to breakfast.  

Artists sought to remind their audience of this non-recognition part of the story by equipping the Risen Jesus with gardening equipment: spades, hoes, etc. and, in a few cases, a gardener's hat.  This strand seems to begin in the fourteenth century, so far as I have found to this point.  It ends in the eighteenth century, again so far as I have found to date.  And the artists who have produced works with Jesus the Gardener are among some of the most illustrious in the history of art.

Fra Angelico, Noli Me Tangere
 Italian, 1440-1442
Florence, San Marco
Fra Angelico and his assistants show Jesus carrying a hoe over His left shoulder.

Perugino, Noli Me Tangere
Italian, 1500-1505
Chicago, Art Institute
Here again Jesus carries a hoe.
Jacob Crenelisz van Oostsanen, Noli Me Tangere
Dutch, 1507
Kassel_Staatliche Museen
In this picture Jesus holds a shovel.
Correggio, Noli Me Tangere
Italian, c. 1525
Madrid, Museo del Prado
In this beautiful Correggio painting, a cultivator, shovel and
gardener's straw hat lie on the ground next to Jesus.

Titian, Noli Me Tangere
Italian, c. 1514
London, National Gallery
That is a garden hoe, and not a cross, that Jesus is holding in His left hand.

Franciabigio, Noli Me Tangere
Italian, 1520-25
Florence, Museo del Cenacolo di San Salvi
Once more Jesus carries a hoe over His shoulder.

Jacopo Pontormo, Noli Me Tangere
Italian, 1530s
Private Collection
Pontormo's Jesus has the head of the hoe looped over 
His left arm.
Bronzino, Noli Me Tangere
Italian, c. 1560
Paris, Musee du Louvre
Jesus is holding a shovel in His right hand as 
Mary approaches.

Lelio Orsi, Noli Me Tangere
Italian, c. 1575
Hartford (CT), Wadsworth Athenaeum
In this dancelike encounter with Mary Magdalene, Jesus again holds a hoe in His right hand.

Francesco Albani, Noli Me Tangere
Italian, c. 1620-1625
Paris, Musee du Louvre
Instead of the Resurrection banner, Jesus is carrying a shovel in this image.

Giovanni Battista Caracciolo, Noli Me Tangere
Italian, c. 1620
Prato, Museo Civico
In this dramatically Caravaggesque picture Jesus carries what is probably a shovel (we can see only the shaft) and wears a
very wide brimmed gardener's hat.  

Rembrandt, The Risen Christ Appearing to Mary
Dutch, 1638
London, Collection of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II
In Rembrandt's picture Jesus wears the gardening hat, carries a shovel and appears to have a kind of knife tucked into His belt.  It would appear that Rembrandt is trying to explain Mary's inability to recognize Jesus in simplistic terms.

Alonso Cano, Noli Me Tangere
Spanish, c. 1640
Budapest, Szépmûvészeti Múzeu
Cano's Jesus holds a shovel.

Carle van Loo, Noli Me Tangere
French, c. 1740
Private Collection
The Jesus in Van Loo's image also holds a shovel.

© M. Duffy, 2017

Sunday, April 16, 2017

Links for the Easter Season

Matthias Grunewald, Resurrection of Jesus
from the Isenheim Altar
German, ca. 1515
Colmar_Musee d'Unterlinden

The days of Lent and the days of sadness that are the Triduum are past once again and Easter 2017 has arrived once again!  Below are links to some of the commentary regarding I have written regarding the iconography of the Easter Season, which extends from this happy day till Pentecost.

Below are the links to the various essays I have written about the iconography of Easter, Ascension and Pentecost.  Feel free to explore.

I wish you a happy and profoundly inspiring Easter Season.

Date Published
The Women at the Tomb
April 27, 2011

Noli Me Tangere
April 29, 2011

Jesus, the Gardener
April 18, 2017

The Incredulity of St. Thomas (Doubting Thomas)
May 1, 2011

Emmaus -- The Journey
May 7, 2011

Emmaus -- The Recognition
May 7, 2011

Climbing from the Tomb
May 13, 2011

Hovering over the Tomb
May 13, 2011

Bursting from the Tomb
May 14, 2011

Good Shepherd Sunday
May 15, 2011

The Lake of Galilee -- The Disciples Go Fishing
May 17, 2011

Commission to Peter -- The Good Shepherd Transfers Responsibility
May 21, 2011

The Commission to the Apostles
May 27, 2011

Christ Appears to His Mother

Christ Presents the Redeemed to His Mother
June 1, 2011

May 11, 2017

Striding into the Sky
June 3, 2011

Lifted in a Mondorla or on a Cloud
May 5, 2017

The Disappearing Feet
May 5, 2017

The Direct Approach
May 5, 2017

An Awkward Resurrection Image
April 23, 2014

Worthy Is The Lamb
April 10, 2016

Father, Son, Spirit
May 18, 2008

Veni, Sanctae Spiritus
May 27, 2012

Tongues of Fire
May 15, 2016

At This Sound, They Gathered In a Crowd
May 17, 2016

© M. Duffy, 2017

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Links for the Paschal Triduum, Holy Thursday through Holy Saturday

Fra Angelico and assistants, Mocking of Christ
Italian, 1440-1443
Florence, Convent of San Marco

Yesterday I presented a series of links to pictures, mostly by Giotto, of the events of Holy Week.  Today I am presenting a larger series of links to many more works of art, arranged around themes suggested by meditations and such devotions as the Rosary and the Stations of the Cross.

There is a great deal of material here that you can use to explore the themes presented.  May you have a fruitful experience while using them.

2012 Series:  Meditations on the Passion
Meditation on the Passion
April 1, 2012
Meditation on the Passion – The Mocking of Christ by Fra Angelico
April 4, 2012
Meditation on the Passion – The Ecce Homo
April 5, 2012
Meditation on the Passion – The Man of Sorrows
April 6, 2012
Meditation on the Passion – In the Tomb
April 7, 2012

2013 Series:  The Sorrowful Mysteries
The Sorrowful Mysteries
March 26, 2013
The First Sorrowful Mystery – The Agony in the Garden
March 27, 2013
The Second Sorrowful Mystery – The Scourging at The Pillar
March 29, 2013
The Third Sorrowful Mystery – The Crowning with Thorns
March 29, 2013
The Fourth Sorrowful Mystery – The Carrying of the Cross
March 29, 2013
The Fifth Sorrowful Mystery – The Crucifixion
March 30, 2013

2016 Series:  The Stations of the Cross
The Stations of the Cross – Introduction
March 9, 2016
The First Station, Jesus Is Condemned to Death
March 10, 2016
The Second Station, Jesus Carries the Cross
March 14, 2016
Jesus Falls -- The Third, Seventh and Ninth Stations
March 15, 2016
The Fourth Station, Jesus Meets His Mother
March 16, 2016
The Fifth Station, Simon of Cyrene Helps Jesus to Carry the Cross
March 16, 2016
The Sixth Station, Veronica Wipes the Face of Jesus
March 17, 2016
The Eighth Station, Jesus Meets the Women of Jerusalem
March 20, 2016
The Tenth Station, Jesus Is Stripped of His Garments
March 21, 2016
The Eleventh Station, Jesus Is Nailed to the Cross
March 22, 2016
The Twelfth Station, Jesus Dies On the Cross
March 23, 2016
The Thirteenth Station, The Body of Jesus is Taken Down from the Cross
March 24, 2016
The Fourteenth Station, The Body of Jesus Is Laid in the Tomb
March 26, 2016

© M. Duffy, 2017