Flemish, Late 16th-Century
Paris, Musee du Louvre, Cabinet des dessins
And he was transfigured before them;
his face shone like the sun
and his clothes became white as light.
And behold, Moses and Elijah appeared to them,
conversing with him.
Then Peter said to Jesus in reply,
"Lord, it is good that we are here.
If you wish, I will make three tents here,
one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.”
While he was still speaking, behold,
a bright cloud cast a shadow over them,
then from the cloud came a voice that said,
“This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased;
listen to him.”
When the disciples heard this, they fell prostrate
and were very much afraid.
But Jesus came and touched them, saying,
“Rise, and do not be afraid.”
And when the disciples raised their eyes,
they saw no one else but Jesus alone.
As they were coming down from the mountain,
Jesus charged them,
“Do not tell the vision to anyone
until the Son of Man has been raised from the dead.”
The reading for today’s Feast of the Transfiguration of the Lord is one of the three descriptions of this mysterious event from the Synoptic Gospels, in this case the Gospel of Matthew. The others are Mark 9:2-9 and Luke 9:28-36. One of the three is also read on the Second Sunday of Lent in all three cycles. All agree on the basics: the mountain, the names of the three disciples, the transformation of Jesus, the appearance of Moses and Elijah, the voice from the cloud and the admonition to keep this event secret.
The event is one of the theophanies of Jesus, the others being the Epiphany, the Baptism, the Resurrection appearances and the Ascension. A theophany is a manifestation in visible form of the divine. It is the first in which the divine character of Jesus is made completely unmistakable and a precursor of the Resurrection and Ascension. It is also seen as prefiguring the return of Jesus in glory at the end of time.1
A separate feast of the Transfiguration can be traced back to the sixth century in the Eastern (Greek-speaking) Church. It appears in the ninth century in Spain and became general in the Western (Latin-speaking) Church in 1457. 1 (See also this article on the western Syrian tradition on the Vatican news site.)
Visually, the image of the Transfiguration has been general, both East and West, since the sixth century. Its development is very similar in many ways to that of the Resurrection and the Ascension, to which it is obviously related.
Apse Mosaic, ca. 549
Ravenna, Sant'Apollinare in Classe
Among the earliest images are two mosaics from the mid-sixth century, one in Italy, at Sant’Apollinare in Classe in Ravenna, and the other in the famous monastery of St. Catherine of Sinai. Both were built during the reign of Justinian, the great builder of Hagia Sofia in Constantinople. Both images bedeck the half domes of the apses of both basilicas, but they couldn’t be more different.
The image in Sant’Apollinare is symbolic rather than figural, although they also share some visual elements. Although there are half-length figures of Moses and Elijah floating amid clouds, these are the only human figures in the scene of the Transfiguration. Jesus is represented by a golden, jeweled cross seen against a round blue, star studded heaven (with a bust of Jesus in the intersection of the upright and arms) and the Apostles are represented by three sheep. Instead of a mountain setting, this vision is set in an earthly paradise of green fields, trees, plants, birds and small animals. The Hand of God appears at the top of the scene, a visual representation of the Voice of God from the Scriptures. However, beautiful as the work is, it represents a dead end visually.
Its near contemporary at St. Catherine’s establishes the way forward for this image. (You may watch a video on the recent restoration of this nearly 1,500 year old mosaic at http://vimeo.com/21347003).
Apse Mosaic, 565-566
Sinai, Monastery of St. Catherine
This is the arrangement that would reappear for centuries to come:
In the 9th-century church of Saints Nereus and Achilleus in Rome.
Byzantine, 9th Century
Rome, Saints Nereus and Achilleus
Byzantine, Late 11th Century
Daphni, Church of the Dormition
In the late 10th-century Gospels of Otto III.
|Transfiguration from Gospels of Otto III|
German (Reichenau School), Late 10th Century
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
MS Clm 4453, fol.113r
Transfiguration (Detail of Scenes from Life of Christ)
Italo-Byzantine Ivory Carving, 12th Century
London, Victoria and Albert Museum
Transfiguration and Last Supper
From the Floreffe Bible
Mosan School, ca. 1150-1200
London, British Library
MS Additional 17738, fol. 4
That such a theme would be expressed here is not surprising. This Bible was produced for the Abbey of Floreffe in Belgium. The Abbey was founded in 1121 by St. Norbert, the founder of the Order of Praemonstratensians. One of the aims for which this congregation was founded was to foster devotion to Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament, the Holy Eucharist.
In a late 12th-century French Pictorial Bible.
Transfiguration From Pictorial Bible
From Abbey of St. Bertin in St. Omer
French, ca. 1190-1200
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliothek
MS KB 76 F5, fol. 17v (detail)
London, National Gallery
From Grande Bible Historiale Completee
of Gerard des Moulins
The Hague, Museum Meermano-Westentrianum
MS MMW 10 B23 fol. 475v (detail)
Similar arrangements appear in the late 15th-century in a work by Perugino in Italy and early in the 16th century Netherlands in a work by Gerard David, where the earthbound Jesus is flanked by cloud borne half-lengths of the Prophets and God the Father appears in His own Person at the top (instead of being represented by the Hand of God, as He sometimes had been).
Perugia, Collegio dell Cambio
|Gerard David, Transfiguration|
Vatican City, Pinacoteca
Later artists developed the image even further, using light and energy to present the moment of Transfiguration.
|Ludovico Carracci, Transfiguration|
Bologna, Pinacoteca Nazionale
|Cirro Ferri, Transfiguration|
Italian, Undated (lived 1634-1689)
Paris, Musee du Louvre