Saturday, October 29, 2016

Zacchaeus, the Little Man in the Tree

De Roos Factory, Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus
Dutch (Delft), 1690-1710
London, Victoria and Albert Museum
“At that time, Jesus came to Jericho and intended to pass through the town.
Now a man there named Zacchaeus,
who was a chief tax collector and also a wealthy man,
was seeking to see who Jesus was;
but he could not see him because of the crowd,
for he was short in stature.
So he ran ahead and climbed a sycamore tree in order to see Jesus,
who was about to pass that way.
When he reached the place, Jesus looked up and said,
“Zacchaeus, come down quickly,
for today I must stay at your house.”
And he came down quickly and received him with joy.
When they all saw this, they began to grumble, saying,
“He has gone to stay at the house of a sinner.”
But Zacchaeus stood there and said to the Lord,
“Behold, half of my possessions, Lord, I shall give to the poor,
and if I have extorted anything from anyone
I shall repay it four times over.”
And Jesus said to him,
“Today salvation has come to this house
because this man too is a descendant of Abraham.
For the Son of Man has come to seek
and to save what was lost.”
Luke 19:1-10

Gospel for the Thirty-first Sunday in Ordinary Time, Year C, October 30, 2016

Pietro Monaco after Bernardo Strozzi, Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus
Italian (Venice), 1730-1739
London, British Museum
This story, found only in the Gospel of Luke, is as full of important meaning as any other portion of the Gospel accounts of the ministry of Jesus between His baptism and His passion.  On one level it is a human, even a humorous story, on the other hand it is profound. 

The action of this story takes place in Luke, as Jesus is traveling up to Jerusalem, where He will be put to death.  It is set as He is about to enter the town of Jericho, one of the oldest continuously lived in sites in the world.  A resident of Jericho named Zacchaeus approaches the crowd awaiting the entry of Jesus out of curiosity.  He is short, so he decides to climb a tree to get a better view.  But, instead of him getting a look at Jesus, it is Jesus who sees him and, it seems, sees into him, for He knows him and calls him by name.  More than that, Jesus tells him that He will stay in his house.  Instead of being upset at this unexpected turn of events Zacchaeus welcomes Him, receiving Him “with joy”.  When unspecified people (? residents of Jericho, the apostles, Pharisees?) grumble about Jesus’ dining with a “sinner” Zacchaeus makes a stunning statement “Behold, half of my possessions, Lord, I shall give to the poor, and if I have extorted anything from anyone I shall repay it four times over.” (Luke 19:8) Jesus then tells him that “Today salvation has come to this house because this man too is a descendant of Abraham.   For the Son of Man has come to seek and to save what was lost.” (Luke 19:9-10)
Boetius Adamszoon Bolswert, Christ in the House of Zacchaeus
Flemish, 1590-1622
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum

It would seem that this small story contains quite a bit of meaning.  For, Zacchaeus is a kind of “everyman” (or perhaps, nowadays, “every person”), a stand in for all of us.  He is curious about this celebrity who is coming to town and struggles to get a better view.  But, what he gets from this particular celebrity is unexpected.  He gets a calling, a personal invitation, to come down and welcome the visitor into his house.  And, instead of shying away, of saying “no thanks, my house isn’t ready” Zacchaeus “receives Him with joy”.  Furthermore, so affected is he by the meeting, he offers to give one half of all he owns to the poor (and we are told he was a wealthy man, so it’s not a small thing).  And, not content with that, he offers to repay anyone he has extorted money from four times over.  Since, the way in which tax collectors went about getting the money they were required to raise was through extortion, this probably represented a substantial amount.  Roman provincial tax collectors were permitted to keep a portion of the money they raised for the Imperial treasury.  This which meant that, in order to make the money they felt they were entitled to, above that required by the Roman government, the sums they extracted from people were pretty large and burdensome, and deeply resented.  By making this offer Zacchaeus is acknowledging his guilt, as well as offering to pay restitution.

The ways in which artists illustrated this story through time is an interesting chronicle, with some divergent branches and shifts of focus. 

To begin with, early illustrations told a fairly simple tale.  Two illuminations in royal books painted in the scriptorium of Reichenau around the beginning of the 11th century provide two different views of the same story, one of which would lead to a branch development a few centuries later.  One shows Jesus, seated on a donkey, entering Jericho.  In the other book, Jesus is on foot, surrounded by His disciples.  The latter image also includes the feast at the house of Zacchaeus. 
Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus as He Enters Jericho
from the Gospel Book of Otto III
German (Reichenau), c.1000
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
MS Clm 4453, fol. 234v

Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus and Dines at His House
from the Gospel Book of Heinrich II
German (Reichenau), ca.1007-1012
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
MS Clm 4452, fol.200r

A few decades later, the image was incorporated on the bronze column of Bishop Bernward in Hildesheim, one of the great bronze works that Bernward commissioned that revived the art of bronze casting, after its post-Roman decline.

Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus
Berward's Column
German (Hildesheim), ca. 1020
Hildesheim, Cathedral

For the next two hundred plus years, illustrations of the text were simple and straightforward.  
Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus
from Book of Pericopes of the Monastery of Saint Erentrud
Austrian (Salzburg), 1140
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
MS, fol. 96v

Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus
from Gospel Book
German (Passau), ca. 1170-1180
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
MS Clm 16002, fol. 40v
This image cleverly uses initials to represent the tree and Jesus standing on the ground.

Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus
from a Picture Bible
French (St. Omer, Abbey of St. Bertin), ca.1190-1200
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliotheek
MS KB 76 F 5, fol. 013r

Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus
English (Canterbury), 13th Century
Canterbury, Cathedral

Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus and Dines with Him
North German (Monastery of Weinhausen), ca. 1335
Weinhausen, Weinhausen Abbey
Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus
from a 13th Century Pattern Book
German, 1200-1300
Freiburg im Breisgau, Augustiner Museum

Around at the beginning of the 14th century, the image, propagated throughout Europe by such means as pattern books and the interchange of artists, merged into a different part of the Gospel story, the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem on what we now call Palm Sunday.  

Artists began to incorporate one or two or more people in trees in their illustrations of the entry.   And this confusion between the story of Zacchaeus and Jesus’ entry into Jericho and Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem lasted for about 100 years.

Giotto, Entry into Jerusalem
Italian, 1300-1305
Padua, Arena Chapel

Duccio, Entry into Jerusalem
from the Maesta Altarpiece
Italain, 1308-1311
Siena, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo

Pietro Lorenzetti. Entry into Jerusalem
Italian, c.1320
Assisi, Church of San Francesco, Lower Church

German Master, Entry into Jerusalem
Detail from the Osnabrück Altarpiece
German, 1370s_
Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum

The Limbourg Brothers (Herman, Jean and Paul), Jesus Enters Jerusalem
from Tres Riches Heures of the Duc de Berry
Dutch, 1412-1416
Chantilly, Musée Condé  
MS 65, fol. 173v

However, early in the 15th century, the images became unwound once again.  The emphasis again returned to the dramatic moment of the meeting between Jesus and the small man in the tree.  

Paintings from this period, which lasted up to the beginning of the 20th century and continue today, are infrequent.  It is through the medium of prints and other of the “minor” arts that the images were transmitted.  This made them much more available to the ordinary person, since prints are cheaper and more mobile than paintings. 
Claes Brouwer, Alexander Master, Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus
from Bible historiale
Dutch (Utrecht), ca.1430
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliothek
MS KB 78 D 38-dl2, fol. 173v

Delft Master, Meal at House of Zacchaeus and the Encounter of Jesus and Zacchaeus
Dutch, 1480-1500
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum

Antwerp Master, Meal at  House of Zacchaeus and the Encounter of Jesus and Zacchaeus
Flemish, 1485-1491
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum

Anonymous, Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus
A Cutting from a Gradual Book
Dutch, ea. 16th Century
London, Victoria and Albert Musseum

Glass Roundel with the Encounter of Jesus and Zacchaeus
North Netherlands, 1500-1510
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Cloisters Collection

Adam Petri, Encounter of Jesus and Zacchaeus
German, 1514
London, British Museum

Glass Roundel, Jesus at Supper in the house of Zacchaeus
German, ca.1530
London, Victoria and Albert Museum

Philips Galle after Maerten de Vos, Encounter of Jesus and Zacchaeus
Flemish (Antwerp), 1547-1612
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum

Jan Collaert after Maarten de Vos, Encounter of Jesus and Zacchaeus
from Thesaurus Novi Testamenti elegantissimis iconibus expressus continens historias atque miracula do[mi] ni
nostri Iesu Christi
Flemish, c.1585
London, British Museum

Bernardo Strozzi, Encounter of Jesus and Zacchaeus
Italian, c.1640
Nantes, Musée des Beaux-Arts

Alexandre Ubelesqui, Encounter of Jesus and Zacchaeus at Jericho
French, c.1700
Bayonne, Musee Bonnat-Helleu

Glazed Tile, Jesus Encounters Zacchaeus
English or Dutch, ca.1718-1725
London, Victoria and Albert Museum

Domenico Tiepolo, Christ in the House of Zacchaeus in Jericho
Italian, ca.1750-1800
Paris, Musée du Louvre

Joseph Anton Feuchtmayer, Encounter of Jesus with Zacchaeus
Austrian, 1761-1763
Sankt Gallen, Cathedral

Thomas Schaidhauf, Encounter of Jesus and Zacchaeus
German, c. 1780-1807
Furstenfeldbruck, Catholic Parish of St. Bernard

James Tissot, Encounter of Jesus and Zacchaeus
French, 1886-1896
New York, Brooklyn Museum
There was one significant further development on the theme, that of Zacchaeus as a penitent, detached from the meeting with Jesus or His reception in Zacchaeus’ home.  In these Zacchaeus is very clearly offering his ill-gotten gains to Jesus or is repenting in private prayer. 

Boetius Adamszoon Bolswert, Christ in the House of Zacchaeus
Flemish, 1590-1622
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum

Willem Isaacszoon van Swanenburg after Abraham Bloemaert, Penitent Zacchaeus 
from a series of prints of Penitents
Dutch (Leiden), 1611
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum

A further interesting image of Zacchaeus, showing him climbing the tree, preparatory to the arrival of Jesus is found in the book Predigen teütsch (German Preaching), by the popular preacher Johann Geiler von Keysersberg (1445-1510), who was a popular preacher at the end of the 15th century.1 It shows the figure of Zacchaeus climbing a tree (incorrectly shown as a palm).  The tree is wrapped in a banderol with the words “Leibe”, “Hoffnung” and “Glaub”(sic), which translate as Love, Hope and Faith.  Someone has handwritten in the Latin translations of these words: “Charitas”, “Spes” and “Fides”.  In other words, Faith, Hope and Charity, the three theological virtues.  Zacchaeus is here shown for what he represents, the person who seeks to find salvation through Christ and the church.

Hans Burgkmair the Elder, Zacchaeus Climbs the Tree of Faith, Hope and Charity
from Predigen teütsch by Johann Geiler von Keysersberg
German (Augsburg), 1508-1510
London, British Museum
Charles Lemeire, St. Zacchaeus
French, 1888-1893
Paris, Musée d'Orsay

And, finally, late in the 19th century, Zacchaeus is depicted as a saint in the decoration of the church of the Madeleine in Paris.

© M. Duffy, 2016

1.      Scheid, Nikolaus. "Johann Geiler von Kaysersberg." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 28 Oct. 2016 <>.

Scripture texts in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Washington, D.C. and are used by permission of the copyright owner. All Rights Reserved. No part of the New American Bible may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

Tuesday, October 25, 2016

Band of Brothers

Berner Nelkenmeister, Saints Crispin and Crispinian in Their Shop
German, ca. 1510
Zurich, Schweizerisches Landesmseum
In this image, one brother is giving alms to the poor, while the other is directing the 
poor to his twin.
This day is call'd the feast of Crispian.
He that outlives this day, and comes safe home,
Will stand a tip-toe when this day is nam'd,
And rouse him at the name of Crispian.
He that shall live this day, and see old age,
Will yearly on the vigil feast his neighbours,
And say "To-morrow is Saint Crispian."
Then will he strip his sleeve and show his scars,
And say "These wounds I had on Crispin's day."
Old men forget; yet all shall be forgot,
But he'll remember, with advantages,
What feats he did that day. Then shall our names,
Familiar in his mouth as household words—
Harry the King, Bedford and Exeter,
Warwick and Talbot, Salisbury and Gloucester—
Be in their flowing cups freshly rememb'red.
This story shall the good man teach his son;
And Crispin Crispian shall ne'er go by,
From this day to the ending of the world,
But we in it shall be remembered-
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers;
For he to-day that sheds his blood with me
Shall be my brother; be he ne'er so vile,
This day shall gentle his condition;
And gentlemen in England now a-bed
Shall think themselves accurs'd they were not here,
And hold their manhoods cheap whiles any speaks
That fought with us upon Saint Crispin's day.

William Shakespeare, Henry V, Act IV, Scene 3, 43-70

The battle of Agincourt, one of the most important of the Hundred Years War, was fought on October 25, 1415 between the French forces of King Charles VI and the invading (and greatly outnumbered) English forces of King Henry V.  Henry V won the battle, which proved to be a particularly crushing defeat for the French.  In the ensuing peace deal Henry gained a wife, Princess Katherine of Valois, Charles’ daughter, and, most importantly, the right to inherit the crown of France at her father’s death.  The deal disinherited Katherine’s brother, Charles.  Charles would, however, regain his father’s throne with the assistance of Saint Joan of Arc, eventually becoming Charles VII.   Meanwhile, Henry would die young, leaving his infant son, Henry VI, to lose France and to precipitate the Wars of the Roses within England.
Anonymous, Saints Crispin and Crispinian at Work
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
Nearly 200 years after the battle William Shakespeare wrote a play about it and the young English king who won it.  The play, Henry V, has been a favorite of actors and audiences since its original performances around 1600.  In addition, it has been filmed several times, most notably in films starring Laurence Olivier (1944) and Kenneth Branagh (1989).  It has also been filmed for television, particularly in the Age of Kings series in 1960 and in the Hollow Crown series in 2012 with Robert Hardy and Tom Hiddleston respectively in the lead role. 

One of the highlights of the play is the speech which Shakespeare puts into the mouth of the king just before the battle.  In response to the wish for more men expressed by his cousin, the Early of Westmoreland, the king plays on the theme of valiant brotherhood that the small numbers of his troops imply.  Through this speech, the phrase “band of brothers” has entered common consciousness (used to good effect in the World War II series that uses the phrase as its title). 

What makes this speech highly interesting is that its play on the theme of brotherhood and its several references to the saint of the day point directly to the date, October 25.  This date happens to be the feast day of a pair of brothers, sometimes said to be twins, Saint Crispin and Saint Crispinian.  

According to the accounts passed down by tradition, the brothers lived in the late 3rd century and were Christian missionaries in Roman Gaul, choosing the town of Soissons for their base.  Like Saint Paul they worked for their living, in their case as shoemakers.  Their missionary activity attracted the attention of the Roman authorities during the persecution of Diocletian and they were tortured.  According to the tradition, strips of skin were removed from their backs and awls were driven under their fingernails (presumably as references to the processes of their trade).    In spite of the torture, they refused to renounce Christianity or to sacrifice to the Roman gods and so were condemned to death.  The first attempt at murder was to drown them.  So, they were thrown into the frozen river with millstones around their necks.  However, they were able to swim to the far side of the river and crawl out.  Then they were sentenced to be cast into burning oil.  They were unharmed, although the cauldron backfired and killed the magistrate who was their prosecutor.  Finally, they were beheaded.1
Cantique de Saint Crepin et de Saint Crepinien,
Patrons des Cordonniers
French, ca.1805-1821
Marseilles, Musee des civilisations
de l'Europe et de la Mediterranee

Their bodies were claimed by pious citizens and buried in Soissons.  At a later period, parts of their bodies were removed and sent to the church of San Lorenzo in Panisperna in Rome and to a cathedral dedicated to them in Osnabruck, Germany.2 They are the patron saints of shoemakers, saddlers, tanners and other leatherworkers.

I found myself feeling very curious about whether there would be any visual material concerning these two saints.  I fully expected that, due to the coincidence of their feast day being the date of a notable English victory/French defeat in the Hundred Years War, many of the images would be English.  I was wrong.  Instead, most of the images I found were French, Flemish or German in origin. 

The iconography of these saints almost always shows them together.  It falls into two forms.  The earliest and most frequent form shows scenes from their martyrdom.  The other form shows them working as shoemakers and as missionaries, prior to their martyrdom.

The martyrdom images are the earliest and most frequent.  The focus is on the four forms in which they were martyred.  

Anonymous, Altarpiece of Saint Crispin and Saint Crispinian
French, ca.1415
Saint-Omer, Musee de l'Hotel Sandelin
This image indicates the work of the brothers and acts from their martyrdom in pictures that surround an image of the
Crucifixion of Christ, a reminder of what their witness entailed.

In the first stage, torture, the brothers were cruelly abused.  According to tradition, they were scourged, then strips were torn from the flesh of their backs and awls were driven under their nails.  
Pasquier Borman, Flagellation of Saints Crispin and Crispinian
German, 1510-1536
Herentals, Saint Waldetrude Church

Berner Nelkenmeister, Saints Crispin and Crispinian Tortured
German, ca. 1510
Zurich, Schweizerisches Landesmseum

Ambrosius_Francken, the Elder, Martyrdom of
Saints Crispin and Crispinian of Soissons
Flemish, ca.1600
Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten
In the second phase, millstones were placed around their necks and they were tossed into the frozen river, Aisne, which they survived.  
Martyrdom of Sts. Crispin and Crispinian
From Speculum historiale of Vincentius Bellavacensis
French (Paris), 1335
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Arsenal 5080, fol. 272v
Here the brothers are being thrown into the river.
Flemish School, The Martyrdom
of Saints Crispin and Crispinian
Flemish, 18th Century
In this picture, the brothers are rescued by an angel.

In the third phase, they were boiled in oil and pitch.  They also survived this, although their tormentor was killed by coming in contact with the burning matter.  

Aert van den Bossche
Sts. Crispin and Crispinian Are Boiled
and the Fire Catches the Magistrate
Flemish, ca. 1490-1505
Brussels, Musee de la Ville de Bruxelles
Left wing of the Altarpiece of Sts. Crispin and Crispinian
Aert van den Bossche
Beheading of Sts. Crispin and Crispinian
Flemish, c.1490
Brussels, Musee de la ville de Bruxelles
Right wing of the Altarpiece of Sts. Crispin and Crispinian

Aeart van den Bossche, Torture  of Sts. Crispin and Crispinian
Flemish, ca. 1490-1505
Warsaw, Muzeum Narodwe
The focus in the central panel is on the earlier torments visited on the brothers. Center of the Altarpiece of Sts. Crispin and Crispinian

Finally, they were beheaded and secretly buried by the faithful of Soissons.

Beheading of Saints Crispin and Crispinian
from Speculum historiale of Vincentius Bellavacensis
French (Paris), 1396
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Francais 313, fol. 257v
Ghislain Vroyelinck, Beheading of Saints Crispin and Crispinian
Flemish, 1613
Bruges, Groeninge Museum

Often they are shown as triumphant martyrs. 

Saints Crispin and Crispinian
from a Book of Hours
French (Paris), ca.1490-1500
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliotheek
MS KB 76 F 14, fol. 121r

Since there are two of them they are able to carry both the instruments of their martyrdom, like most martyrs, and the instruments and symbols of their trade.  So we see one of them carrying a martyr’s palm, or a book of Gospels, or a sword, while the other will carry a boot or shoe, or one of the specialized knives used by leatherworkers or that most specific tool of a shoemaker, the last (foot shaped form on which shoes are fitted). 

Anonymous Woodcut, Saints Crispin and Crispinian
German, 1490-1510
London, British Museum

Anonymous Southwestern German Painter, Saints Crispin and Crispinia
German, ca. 1850-1900
Unknown Location

Kerstken von Ringenberch, Saints Crispin and Crispinian
German, ca.1510
Kalkar, Catholic Parish Church of St. Nicholas
In these two statues from the altarpiece below, which includes scenes from their martyrdom, the brother saints both carry the swords that killed them, while one carries the hammer of their trade and the other the Gospel Book for which they died.

Kerstken von Ringenberch and Collaborators, Altarpiece of Saints Crispin and Crispinian
German, ca.1510
Kalkar, Catholic Parish Church of St. Nicholas
Here the two brothers are shown in their original places, at the center of the altarpiece.  The wings record their sufferings.

Frequently, however, they are shown simply as the shoemakers that they were, at work at their bench or in their shop.  Many of the images of these saints, especially those that were commissioned as church decorations, such as altarpieces or statues, would have been commissioned by the leatherworkers guilds in honor of their patron saints.

Saints Crispin and Crispinian at Work
from Fleurs des histoires of Jean Mansel
Belgian (Bruges), ca.1450-1475
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Francais 298, fol. 106v

Saint Crispin at Work
French, ca.1480-1500
Private Collection

Ceramic Plaque, Saints Crispin and Crispinian at Work
French, ca.1490
Paris, Musee du Louvre

Anonymous, Saint Crispin
French, ca. 1500
Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Francois Gentil, Arrest of Saints Crispin and Crispinian
French, ca. 1550
Troyes, Church of Saint-Pantaleon

Jan van de Venne, Saints Crispin and Crispinian at Work
Flemish, ca.1640
Besancon, Musee des beaux-arts et d'archeologie

Their feast day was removed from the calendar of the universal Church in the pruning of multiple saints’ days that followed the Second Vatican Council. Removal from the calendar does not mean, as I have seen it asserted, that the Church has decided that the saint never existed.  It does means that a deliberate choice has been made about which saints’ days should be celebrated universally, rather than in individual countries or dioceses.   There are thousands of Catholic saints and not all of them need to be celebrated by everyone all over the world.  However, the feast days of "removed" saints may be celebrated by the local areas that have a special connection to them, such as the areas where they lived and died, the countries that have a special devotion to them or the diocese, parish or religious community of which they may be the patron.3

P. Cayeul, Saints Crispin and Crispinian in Prison
French, 1683
Chaudes Aigues, Church of Saint Martin
Saints, especially those from the time of the early centuries of the Church, may have few documentary sources to prove that they existed and, clearly, some of the stories of their sufferings may have been embroidered over time, but it does not follow that they did not live. It was not until much later in history that an elaborate procedure for canonizing individuals as saints was developed.  In the early centuries martyrs were remembered by their communities and their tombs were known and venerated.  The traditions that grew up around them and their graves were formed around the fact of an actual person’s life, or in this case the lives of two brothers.4   I have no doubt that two brothers, who may have been shoemakers, were tortured and put to death for the faith in the late third century in Soissons in Roman Gaul and that they probably did die on October 25th

Their lives and the traditions that grew around them remind us that anyone can be a witness to the faith of Christ in whatever profession one finds oneself, whether it be that of shoemaker or art historian.  The witness may be through how we live our lives, or explain the faith to others, or, possibly, sacrifice our lives as did this “band” of two brothers.

© M. Duffy, 2016

  1.  The Golden Legend or Lives of the Saints. Compiled by Jacobus de Voragine, Archbishop of Genoa, 1275.  First Edition Published 1470. Englished by William Caxton, First Edition 1483, Edited by F.S. Ellis, Temple Classics, 1900 (Reprinted 1922, 1931.), p. 33. <>
  2.  Meier, Gabriel. "Sts. Crispin and Crispinian." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 24 Oct. 2016.      <>
  3.  “The saints have been traditionally honored in the Church and their authentic relics and images held in veneration. For the feasts of the saints proclaim the wonderful works of Christ in His servants, and display to the faithful fitting examples for their imitation. 
 Lest the feasts of the saints should take precedence over the feasts which commemorate the  very mysteries of salvation, many of them should be left to be celebrated by a particular Church or nation or family of religious; only those should be extended to the universal Church which commemorate saints who are truly of universal importance.” (Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, Sacrosanctum Concilium, Solemnly Promulgated by His Holiness Pope Paul VI on December 4, 1963, Chapter IV, article 111. <>

4.   See also, the Motu Proprio, Mysterii Paschalis (The Paschal Mystery) of Pope Paul VI, dated February 14, 1969, which implemented the changes, specifically Part II, paragraph 3.  <>