Sunday, October 30, 2011

Giuseppe Arcimboldo – A Halloween Offering

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Winter,
Italian, 1564
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum

In the years when I was between ages 4 and 6 my mother went through a period of serious illness that required her to make frequent visits to her doctor. While she was with the doctor I was on my own in the waiting room and, while waiting, would peruse the magazines that were available. In those days it was mostly Life, Time and Look, with the occasional Saturday Evening Post (based on my memories of their format). There may have been other magazines too but, since I couldn’t yet read, I can’t be sure of their identity.

One day, in one of the magazines, I remember seeing reproductions of some paintings that both fascinated and repelled me. They still do. These are the notorious “composite portrait” paintings of Giuseppe Arcimboldo.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo was the son of the Lombard (north Italian) Renaissance painter, Biagio. He was presumably born sometime in 1526 or 1527, presumably in Milan. In his youth he worked with his father, most notably on designs for stained glass windows in the cathedral of Milan.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Zacharias Naming His Son
from Scenes from the Life of St. John the Baptist
Italian, 1545
Milan, San Maurizio al Monastero Maggiore

He also seems to have worked in collaboration with other artists on various decorative projects in and around Milan during the 1540s and 1550s. 1

In Milan, Arcimboldo could have become familiar with some of the works of Leonardo da Vinci, who had worked in the area at the beginning of the century. Leonardo’s famous Last Supper is in Milan and some of his other work, such as drawings, including his studies of grotesque heads, was also there at the time. Milan was also the home of some of Leonardo’s pupils and assistants, notably Francesco Melzi, Bernardino Luini and Giovanni Ambrogio Figino. 2

Leonardo da Vinci, Grotesque Heads
Italian, c. 1494
Windsor, Royal Collection

The mood of painting in these decades was that of what is known as Mannerism3 The art of the Mannerist period delighted in various kinds of visual extravagances, such as distortions of proportion, complex compositions (with figures often irrelevant to the supposed subject matter being given prominent place), grotesques and visual jokes. It was a sophisticated and deliberately “in” style of art, highly suited for an aristocratic and learned audience, but not well suited for straightforward didactic purposes. One could say, in fact, that in Mannerist art the complexity of the composition and elegance of execution took precedence over content and meaning.

In 1562 Giuseppe moved north of the Alps to offer his services to the King of the Romans (eventually also Holy Roman Emperor), Maximilian II. His move from Milan may have been precipitated by the episcopate of Cardinal (later Saint) Charles Borromeo. Cardinal Borromeo preferred artists who were able to focus their production on a more straightforward and serious presentation of the truths of the faith. In this way he anticipated the aims of what became known as Counter-Reformation art or Tridentine art (named after the reforming Council of Trent, which met in northern Italy from 1545 - 1563). At the imperial court Arcimboldo could hope to obtain work from the kind of sophisticated audience that had supported the Mannerist style in mid-century Italy.
Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Archduchess Anna, Daughter of Emperor Maximilian II
Italian, ca. 1563
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum

Initially, he painted portraits of the imperial family and court. He also worked as a designer for the kinds of courtly activities that were common in late 16th-century Europe: pageants, tournaments, etc.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Maximilian II, His Wife Maria of Spain and Three of Their Eight Children
Italian, 1563
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Sketch for a Sleigh
Italian, 1570s
Florence, Uffizi Gallery

But, beginning in the mid-1560s he also began the series of composite heads that fascinated me as a child and continue to fascinate me as an adult.

The composite heads are human forms that are composed of flowers, fruits and vegetables or sometimes of other items.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Fruit Basket
Italian, c. 1590
Private Collection
The best known are several series of The Four Seasons, one of which is at the Louvre.

In the Louvre Four SeasonsSpring is made up of flowers and spring plants; Summer is composed of grains, fruits and vegetables (among them grapes, melons and eggplant).  Autumn is made from fruits and grains, while Winter shows bare branches, ivy and those stored up sources of vitamin C, lemons.

In Spring teeth are actually lilies of the valley, while peas represent them in Summer.  In Autumn a pear becomes a nose, while in Winter mushrooms become lips.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Winter
Italian, ca. 1573
Paris, Musédu Louvre
GiuseppeArcimboldo, Spring
Italian, ca. 1573
Paris, Musée du Louvre

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Summer
Italian, ca. 1573
Paris, Musée du Louvre

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Autumn
Italian, ca. 1573
Paris, Musée du Louvre

 He also did a series of heads of the classical four elements: earth, air, fire, water.  Two of the Elements are in the Kunsthistoricsches Museum in Vienna.

Fire is a head composed of flames, flammable items and items associated with different forms of fire, such as candles, lamps, flint and parts of guns and cannons. Burning coals form the hair.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Fire
Italian, 1566
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum

Water, who appears, from the pearl earring and necklace, to be a female, is composed of aquatic elements: fish, crustaceans, amphibians, coral, even a tiny seal. 4

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Water
Italian, 1566
Viena Kunsthistorisiches Museum

Two other paintings from this Elements series are currently held in private collections.

The first of these is Earth.  This head is made up of various animals, both predator and prey, all positioned to create the features of a head, including half of the head of an elephant, which creates the ear and side of the cheek, while a fox creates the cheek, even as it snarls at the hare, which substitutes for the nose.
Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Earth
Italian, 1566
Private Collection

Air is a bearded character, composed of the bodies of birds and birds nests.  The goatee beard is formed by the tail of a pheasant, whose head is being inspected by a rooster with a plumy blackish tail.  The nose is the head of a turkey and the brow is formed by the body of a duck.  The hair is made up of the heads and beaks of multiple small birds.  A fanning peacock creates a kind of ruff where the neck should be. 

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Air
Italian, 1566
Private Collection
The composite heads are sometimes “portraits” of actual individuals. For example, the well-known Vertumnus is a portrait of the Emperor Rudolf II (son of Maximilian II).

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Vertumnus
Italian, ca. 1590
Skokloster (Sweden), Skokloster Castle

Other portraits are visual jokes, based on the profession of the “sitter”. The painting called The Librarian, made up of books, is presumed to be a portrait of the court historian, Wolfgang Lazius.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Librarian
Italian, ca. 1566
Skokloster (Sweden), Skokloster Castle

And some are both visual jokes and optical illusions, as for instance the painting titled, The Cook. In that painting we see a platter of roasted meats in the process of being uncovered. But, when it is turned upside down, it becomes a face and the platter becomes a hat.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, The Cook
Italian, 1570
Stockholm, National Museum

In his final years Arcimboldo painted a head called The Four Seasons in One Head, which may be a self-portrait. In it the flowers of spring, the grains and fruits of summer and autumn and the dead branches of winter all combine.
Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Four Seasons in One Head
Italian, c. 1590
Washington, D. C., National Gallery of Art

These heads combine a keen, almost scientific, observation of natural elements, vegetable and animal, and of man-made items such as cannons, candles and books, with a playful and ingenious sense of design. Some have seen them as the result of mental illness, but they are more probably expressions of the taste for oddity and the grotesque that can be seen in much of late 16th-century art, especially of the Mannerist art that was associated with the secular courts of the time (as opposed to art intended for the decoration of churches).

Bernard Palissy, Platter
French, c, 1580
Paris, Musée du Louvre

One need only look at the “rustic” pottery of Bernard Palissy in Paris, with its casts of creepy crawlies, and at the grotesque doorways of the house built by the brothers Taddeo and Federico Zuccaro on Via Gregoriana in Rome to see this mood expressed in the minor arts and in architecture.
Palazzo Zuccari, Doorway
Italian, 1592
Rome, Via Gregoriana 28

Much of this work was regarded by patrons as clever and interesting. Emperor Rudolf II clearly felt this way about Arcimboldo’s paintings because he placed them in his Kunstkammer in Prague. A Kunstkammer (literally “art room”) was a kind of private museum of odd and curious items and included not only paintings but scientific instruments, natural specimens, clever toys, small statuary, in short, whatever unusual object appealed to the owner. 5  Emperor Rudolf’s Kunstkammer was famous throughout Europe. To be placed there was a great honor to Arcimboldo.

However, tastes in art change and the collection was broken up. It was also the victim of looting over the years and was, therefore, widely dispersed. Arcimboldo’s work virtually disappeared until it was “discovered” early in the 20th century by the Surrealists. They obviously felt an affinity with the precise detailing and odd combinations of the composite heads. Since then Arcimboldo has remained a kind of art historical curiosity.

I think of his work as a fitting subject for Halloween, as it seems to fit easily into the atmosphere of disguise and pranks that prevails in relation to this very old festival, which heralds the approach of winter.

© M. Duffy, 2011

1. For information on what is known about Arcimboldo’s early life see:

  •  Kaufmann, Thomas Da’Costa. Arcimboldo: visual jokes, natural history, and still-life painting, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2009.
  • Arcimboldo : 1526-1593, edited by Sylvia Ferino-Pagden. Milano and New York, Skira, 2007. Catalog of the exhibition held at Musée du Luxembourg, Paris, Sept. 15, 2007-Jan. 13, 2008; and at Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Feb. 12-June 1, 2008.
  • Kriegeskorte, Werner. Arcimboldo, Cologne, Taschen, 1987.

2. See #1 above.

3.  Shearman, John K. G., Mannerism, New York, Penguin, 1967 is a well-known study of the period.

4. Arcimboldo 1526 – 1593, Nature and Fantasy, text by Silvia Ferino-Pagden. Exhibition brochure National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., September 19, 2010 – January 9 , 2011.   It is available online at

5. For informaiton on the Kunstkammer or Studiolo see:

© M. Duffy, 2011

Saturday, October 15, 2011

Teresa of Avila – Mystic, Practical Woman, Doctor of the Church

Workshop of Peter Paul Rubens, St. Teresa of Avila Interceding for Souls in Purgatory
Flemish, 1630-1633
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Nada te turbe. 
Nada te espante. 
Dios no se muda. 
Todo se pasa. 
La paciencia todo lo alcanza. 
Quien a Dios tiene, nada le falta. 
Sólo Dios basta.

"Let nothing disturb thee;
Let nothing dismay thee:
All things pass;
God never changes.

Patience attains
All that it strives for.
He who has God
Finds he lacks nothing:
God alone suffices."

Saint Teresa of Avila, "Poem IX".1 

October 15 is the feastday of Saint Teresa de Jesus, also known as Teresa of Avila.

Teresa Sanchez de Cepeda y Alhumada was born in the Spanish town of Avila in 1515. In 1582 she died in one of the convents she had founded. Between these two dates she lived a life of intense prayer, intense work, frequent illness and some controversy.

She was canonized within a short period of her death (in 1622) and, in 1970, she was named a Doctor of the Church (one of four women Doctors of the 33 saints that have been honored with this title since 1298, when it was first used). A Doctor of the Church is a saint whose personal holiness and writings have contributed greatly to Catholic theological understanding.
Anonymous Nineteenth Century Copy of the Only Known Portrait of St. Teresa Done from Life 
by the Carmelite friar Juan de la Miseria
Spanish, 1877
Madrid, Museo del Prado

Like her three female colleagues among the Doctors, Teresa’s contribution is mainly to the understanding of prayer and of the mystical life.2  She is one of the classic guides and sources for those seeking a deeper personal union with Christ. Her description of the stages through which the soul passes as it moves to greater and greater union with God is based on her own deep personal experiences, which began when she was still quite a young woman.

Attributed to Gerard van Honthorst, Christ Crowning Saint Teresa
Dutch, c.1614-1616
Genoa, Church of Saint Anne
Peter Paul Rubens, Saint Teresa's Vision of the Dove
Flemish, c. 1614
Cambridge (UK), Fitzwilliam Museum

Alonso Cano, The Apparition of Christ Crucified
to Saint Teresa de Jesus
Spanish, 1629
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
Alonso Cano, The Apparition of Christ Crucified t
to Saint Teresa de Jesus
Spanish, 1629
Madrid, Museo del Prado

Guerchino, The Apparition of Christ to Saint Teresa
Italian, c.1630-40
Aix-en-Provence, Musee Granet
Antonio Guerra the Elder, Saint Teresa of Avila Offering Her Heart
Spanish, 1667
Perpignan, Musee Hyacinthe Rigaud

Bartolome Perez, Garland of Flowers with Saint Teresa de Jesus
Spanish, ca. 1676
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
Vincenzo Fato, Saint Joseph and the Christ Child Appearing to Saint Teresa
Italian, 1751-1800
Nardo, Church of Santa Teresa

Francois Pascal Simon Gerard, Saint Teresa
French, 1827
Paris, Maison Marie-Therese

However, Teresa was not just a contemplative visionary, she was also a woman of action. Based on the insights she had gained from her prayer and mystical experiences, she undertook a reform of the Carmelite order, eventually establishing the branch order of the Discalced (Unshod) Carmelites.  Consequently, she is often shown at her desk, working under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.

Workshop of Jose de Ribera, Saint Teresa of Avila
Spanish, 1644
Private Collection
Anonymous, Saint Teresa de Jesus
Spanish, c. 1650-1700
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Anonymous Copy of Jose de Ribera, Santa Teresa de Jesús
Spanish, 17th Century
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Miguel Jadraque y Sanchez Ocanya, Saint Teresa de Jesus
Spanish, 1882
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Her reform affected not only the women’s branch of the Carmelites, but, with the help of the Carmelite monk, her friend, fellow mystic and fellow doctor of the church, St. John of the Cross, and others, it extended to the men’s branch as well. The goal of the reform was to return to a more primitive, even stern, interpretation of the Carmelite monastic rule.

The work of reform and the consequent work of establishing daughter houses for her nuns involved Teresa in much travel and practical work, not easy for a woman who was often in poor health and who would have preferred to spend most of her time in prayer.

In addition to the many works of art that highlight her sanctity and the visionary experiences that helped shape her life, some works focus on her active life, as founder and defender of the reform, or as a humble daughter of the Church or as a miraculous healer. 

Anonymous, Communion of Saint Teresa
Spanish, 17th Century
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
Jose Garcia Hidalgo, Saint Peter of Alcantara Hearing the Confession of Saint Teresa
Spanish, 1650-1700
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
Juan Garcia de Miranda, The Education of St. Teresa
Spanish, 1735
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
Luis de Madrazo y Kuntz, The First Miracle of Saint Teresa de Avila, The Resurrection of Her Nephew, Don Gonzalo Ovalle, Son of her sister Dona Juana de Ahumada
Spanish, 1855
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Benito Mercade y Fabregas, Saint Teresa Defending Her Reform Before Gratian
Spanish, 1868
Madrid, Museo del Prado

Pablo Pardo Gonzalez, The Viaticum of Saint Teresa
Spanish, 1870
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Jose Alcazar Tejedor, Santa Teresa
Spanish, 1884
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
St. Teresa is a highly respected saint, owing to her writings, her holy and hard-working life, her many convent foundations, the inspiration she has been to the daughters and sons (nuns, brothers and priests) who continue to follow in her footsteps and her own visionary experiences.

One of her mystical experiences has, above all others, been attractive to artists.  This is the so-called Transverberation.  This experience was described by Saint Teresa herself in her autobiography Libro de mi vida, thus:
Our Lord was pleased that I should have at times a vision of this kind: I saw an angel close to me, on my left side, in bodily form…. He was not large, but small of stature, and most beautiful–-his face burning, as if he were one of the highest angels, who seem to be all of fire….I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the iron’s point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it. The soul is satisfied now with nothing less than God. The pain is not bodily, but spiritual; though the body has its share in it, even a large one. It is a caressing of love so sweet which now takes place between the soul and God, that I pray God of His goodness to make him experience it who may think that I am lying."   3

A number of artists attempted to capture this scene in their imaginations and translate it to canvas and paint. 

Palma the Younger, Transverberation of Saint Teresa of Avila
Italian, 1615
Rome, Church of San Pancrazio
Circle of Pietro da Cortona, Transverberation of Saint Teresa
Italian, c. 1650-1700
Cortona, Museo dell'Accademia Etrusca

Jacob Van Oost the Elder, Transverberation of St. Theresa
Flemish, c.1650
Lille, Eglise Saint-Maurice
Giovanni Segala, Transverberation of Saint Teresa
Italian, 1675-1725
Douai_Musee de la Chartreuse

Jean-Baptiste Santerre, Transverberation of Saint Teresa of Avila
French, 1710
Versailles, Chateaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Chapel

However, none of these pictures hold anything like the imaginative power brought to the subject by one of the greatest artists of his own or any other age, the great Gianlorenzo Bernini.

Gianlorenzo Bernini was the pre-eminent artist of the Italian Baroque. Indeed, he has often been credited with the creation of the Baroque style. Born in 1598, the son of the successful late-sixteenth-century sculptor, Pietro Bernini, he exhibited an unusually precocious talent in that difficult field (marble sculpture), while still a young boy. Very few people have ever handled marble with greater sensitivity or virtuosity.

But Gianlorenzo’s talent was not limited to marble alone, or even to sculpture alone. He was also a superlative architect, painter and creator of stunningly memorable, highly intellectual, decorative schemes. While the structure of St. Peter’s Basilica is largely the product of the great Michelangelo Buonnaroti, the interior is primarily the work of Gianlorenzo Bernini. As Maffeo Barberini (Pope Urban VIII) is reputed to have told Bernini shortly after his election “It is your great good luck, Cavaliere, to see Maffeo Barberini Pope; but We are even luckier in that the Cavaliere Bernini lives in the time of Our Pontificate”. 4  Urban’s statement would be echoed by several of his successors as Pope.

One of Bernini’s greatest works, recognized as such in his own lifetime, was inspired by an experience
Gianlorenzo Bernini, Cornaro Chapel
Italian, 1647-1652
Rome, Santa Maria della Vittoria

Bernini’s interpretation of the scene reveals him at the height of his creative powers, using architecture, painting, stucco work, marble, stained glass and bronze to create a great illusion that, like all the best Baroque work, draws the spectator into the “reality” of the scene before him or her. This work is the famous Cornaro Chapel, in the Roman church of Santa Marie della Vittoria (named in honor of Our Lady of Victory, a relatively new title for the Blessed Virgin in Bernini’s time). The chapel was executed between 1647 and 1652 at the behest of the Cornaro family (whose burial vault lies beneath the floor).

The chapel is relatively shallow and is situated to the right of the main altar of the church, which stands on the slopes of the Quirinal Hill in Rome. Rather than describing it myself I’m going to quote the elegant description penned by Rudolf Wittkower, the classic art historian of the Roman Baroque, in his book Gianlorenzo Bernini, The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque.
Gianlorenzo Bernini, Transverberation of 
St. Teresa of Avila
Italian, 1647-1652
Rome, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Cornaro Chapel

The Cappella Cornaro, which cannot be photographed in its entirety, is an indivisible unit from floor to ceiling. On its vaulting the painted sky opens, angels have peeled aside the clouds, so that the heavenly light falling from the Holy Dove can reach the zone in which the mortals live. Rays of this heavenly light fall on to the group of St. Teresa, and with the light has descended the seraph whose companions appear in the clouds. In the sculptured group Bernini represented the most important–the canonical–vision of the Carmelite Saint corresponding exactly with her own account of it. She described how the angel pierced her heart repeatedly with a floating golden arrow, whereupon, she continued, ‘the pain was so great that I screamed aloud; but simultaneously I felt such infinite sweetness that I wished the pain to last eternally. It was not bodily, but physical pain, although it affected to a certain extent also the body. It was sweetest caressing of the soul by God.’ With consummate skill Bernini made this scene real and visionary at the same time. The seraph, a figure of heavenly beauty, is about to pierce the heart of the Saint with the fiery arrow of love and thus effect her mystical union with Christ, the heavenly bridegroom. The Saint is swooning in an ecstatic trance, her limbs hang inert and numb, her head has sunk back, her eyes are half closed and the mouth opens in an almost audible moan. The vision takes place in an imaginary realm on a large cloud magically suspended in mid-air.
Gianlorenzo Bernini, Transverberation of St. Teresa of Avila
Italian, 1647-1652
Rome, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Cornaro Chapel
Sheltered by the large canopy of greenish, grey-blue and reddish marble and placed against an iridescent alabaster background. He group is bathed in a warm and mysterious light, falling from above through a window of yellow glass hidden behind the pediment and playing on the highly polished marble surface of the two figures. 

Along the side walls of the chapel, above the doors, eight members of the Cornaro family appear behind prie-deus which have been compared with theatre boxes. The portraits stand out almost three-dimensionally before a colored and gild stucco perspective in flat relief representing the interior of a church. Since the two sides are made to look like parts of the same interior, the fictitious architecture and the architecture of the real chapel seem to interpenetrate. This creates the illusion that the Cornaro family is sitting in an extension of the space in which we move.

When standing on the central axis opposite the group of St. Teresa, it becomes apparent that the chapel is too shallow for the members of the Cornaro family to see the miracle on the altar. For that reason Bernini has shown them arguing, reading and pondering, certainly about what they know is happening on he altar, but which is hidden from their eyes.
Gianlorenzo Bernini, Members of the Cornaro Family
Italian, 1647-1652
Rome, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Cornaro Chapel
Gianlorenzo Bernini, Members of the Cornaro Family
Italian, 1647-1652
Rome, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Cornaro Chapel

Gianlorenzo Bernini, Skeleton
Italian, 1647-1652
Rome, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Cornaro Chapel

Under the pavement of the chapel is the family tomb chamber, and on the cover of the vault two inlaid skeletons seem to express their surprise at the miracle with lively gesticulation. Thus not only the ceiling and the walls but even the pavement forms part of the grand dynamic unit.

Gianlorenzo Bernini, Skeleton
Italian, 1647-1652
Rome, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Cornaro Chapel

It is the suggestive characterization, within one integrated whole, of the different realms of Man, Saint and Godhead that substantiates the belief in the existence of this mystic hierarchy of things. Like the Cornaro family, the worshipper participates in the supra-human mystery shown on the altar, and if he yields entirely to the ingenious and elaborate directives given by the artist, he will step beyond the narrow limits of his own existence and be entranced with the causality of an enchanted world. “5

If she had done no other work in her life than through her mystical prayers and visions she would have been justly famous.  That she accomplished so much in the practical level makes her life not only edifying, but downright amazing. 

Anonymous, Saint Teresa Writing
Austrian, 1748
Vienna, Saint Elizabeth Hospital

Saint Teresa of Jesus, pray for us!


1. From  Complete Works St. Teresa of  Avila (1963) edited by E. Allison Peers, Vol. 3, p. 288.

2.  The other three female doctors of the church are:  Saint Catherine of Siena, Saint Therese of Lisieux and Saint Hildegard of Bingen.

3. Teresa of Avila. The Life of St. Teresa de Jesus, Teddington, Middelsex, The Echo Library, 2006, Chapter XXIX, Section 16-17, p. 197. Accessible at

4.   Wittkower, Rudolf. Gianlorenzo Bernini, The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque, London, The Phaidon Press, Second edition, 1966, p.7. 

5. Wittkower, Rudolf. op cit., pp. 25-26.

© M. Duffy, 2011