Saturday, December 24, 2011

Hodie Christus Natus Est!

Giotto, Nativity
Italian, 1304-1306
Padua, Arena Chapel
"While they were there, the time came for her to have her child, and she gave birth to her firstborn son.
 She wrapped him in swaddling clothes and laid him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn." (Luke 2:6-7) 

These are the words of St. Luke, as he describes the birth of Jesus, His Nativiity.

The subject of the Nativity of Jesus has been a popular subject for artists in the nearly two milennia of Christian life.   There are so many works of art illustrating the scene that it is difficult to make a choice of which to talk about. 

Giotto, Nativity (detail)

But here is a favorite of mine (among many) -- Giotto's Nativity from the Arena Chapel in Padua.  I love the exchange of glances between Mother and Child.  Their regard for each other is serious, grave even.  Is Mary wondering what this miraculous Child will grow up to be?  Is Jesus wondering what this human life will be like?

Meanwhile, the shepherds hear the words of the exhuberant angels and Joseph, according to legends popular in the Middle Ages, sleeps outside the stable.  In Giotto's image all is calm, quiet and bright.

A Blessed Christmas to all!  And, as my gift to you, here is a performance of Palestrina's motet, Hodie Christus natus est.   

Friday, December 23, 2011

O Emmanuel! Savior of all people, come and set us free!

Hubert and Jan Van Eyck, Adoration of the Lamb, Central Panel of the Ghent Altarpiece
Netherlandish, 1425-1432
Ghent, Cathedral of St. Bavo

The seventh and final "O Antiphon", for December 23rd, reads "O Emmanuel, king and lawgiver, desire of the nations, Savior of all people, come and set us free, Lord our God".  The title, Savior of all people, applies to Christ through his Passion and Death. 

There are many works of art that show the Crucifixion, most often in a narrative sense.  However, the text of this antiphon is more suggestive of contemplation and adoration of Christ as Crucified Savior.  Three works of art come to mind as an interpretation of the subject.  

The first is the Adoration of the Lamb by Hubert and Jan van Eyck, painted for the chapel of the Vidjt family in the Cathedral of St. Bavo in Ghent between 1425 and 1432.  It represents a scene from the book of Revelation  (Rev. 7:9-10).  The blessed in heaven "from every nation, race, people, and tongue" adore the Lamb that was slain.  The Lamb is, of course, Christ and His placement on the altar reminds us of the Sacrifice of the Mass, which is a daily participation in His Passion, Death and Resurrection. For more on this see my post Worthy Is the Lamb.

The second is the Landauer Altarpiece by Albrecht Durer, dated to 1511. It is an image of the Adoration of the Holy Trinity by all the saints.  Here, the Crucified Christ is displayed by God the Father for the adoration of all, the ultimate revelation of the God of Mercy and Love.  See also The Holy Trinity -- Love Made Visible and The Holy Trinity -- The Throne of Grace.

Albrecht Durer, Adoration of the Holy Trinity
German, 1511
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum

The final image is an engraving after a drawing by Gianlorenzo Bernini of the Blood of Christ.  It was engraved as the frontispiece of the book Unica speranza del peccatore (The Only Hope of the Sinner) by F. Marchese, published in Rome in 1670.  In this work, the Crucified Christ, on the cross, is held high by angels in adoring postures.  His blood pours down, forming an endless ocean of grace for sinners to draw upon.  For more on this see "Of the Blood, All Price Exceeding, Shed by Our Immortal King".

Gianlorenzo Bernini, Blood of Christ
Engraved by F. Spierre for frontispiece of Unica speranza del peccatore by F. Marchese,
Italian, 1670
Vatican, Vatican Library

These pictures remind us of the reason for which the anticipated Emmanuel came to us.  As the carol "Hark the Herald Angels Sing" tells us, to make "God and sinners reconciled". 

© M. Duffy, 2011

Wednesday, December 21, 2011

O King of All the Nations!

Michelangelo, Creation of Adam
Italian, 1508-1513
Vatican, Sistine Chapel

The sixth of the "O Antiphons", for December 22 reads:  "O King of all the nations, the only joy of every human heart; O Keystone of the mighty arch of man, come and save the creature you fashioned from the dust".  It asks for Christ, King of the nations, to "save the creature you fashioned from the dust" which raises images of the creation of the first humans, Adam and Eve. 

Probably the most famous image of the Creation of Adam is that by Michelangelo on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.  Michelangelo's conception of the subject both embraces the iconographic tradition and departs from it.

Michelangelo, Detail of Creation of Adam showing the figure of Eve

The most traditional element is found in Adam's reclining posture.  The departures from the tradition are found, first of all, in the dynamism of the figure of God, who zooms in from the side on a cloud, surrounded by angels, and bestows life through that dramatic synapse between His extended finger and that of Adam.

And, most non-traditional of all is the figure of Eve.  She appears, tucked under God's left arm, which she clutches as she looks with curiosity (and perhaps some apprehension) toward her soon-to-be spouse.

Earlier Images

Earlier images were more static, depicting God, generally unaccompanied, 
standing over the figure of Adam as He calls life into it.  

Andrea Pisano, Creation of Adam
Italian, 1334-1337
Florence, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo

The Creation of Adam
From the Bible historiale of Guiard des Moulins
French (Paris), c. 1400
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Francais 3, fol. 6v

Workshop of the Boucicaut Master, The Creation of Adam
From a Bible historiale
French (Paris), 1400-1424
New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
MS M 394, fol. 5r

Eve did not make her appearance in creation images, except for those images that shows her creation from Adam's rib.  

Huntingfield Psalter, Creation of Eve
English, 1210-1220
New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
MS M 43, fol. 7r (detail)

The Creation of Eve
From the Carrow Psalter-Hours
English (East Anglia), c. 1250
Baltimore, Walters Art Museum
MS W.34, fol. 21v

Richard de Montbaston, Creation of Eve
from Bible historiale
French (Paris), 1320-1330
New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
MS M 322, fol. 11v

Creation of  Eve
from Weltkronik
German (Regensburg), 1355-1365
New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
MS M 769, fol. 9r

Jean Bondol and Others, Creation of Eve
From a Bible historiale complétée by Guiard des Moulins
French (Paris), c. 1371-1372
The Hague, Meermano Museum
MS MMW 10 B 23, fol. 9v

Creation of Eve
From the Tafel van den Kersten ghelove (Winter) by Dirc van Delf
Dutch, c. 1400-1404
Baltimore, The Walters Art Museum
MS 171, fol. 25r
I rather like this little image, which is unconventional.  Eve appears to be diving into Adam, instead of being pulled from him.

Malergruppe A, The Creation of Eve
From a History Bible
German, c. 1424-1450
Munich, Bayerisches Staatsbibliothek
MS Cgm 1101, fol.  29

Master Francois and Collaborators, Creation of Eve
From a Speculum historiale of Vincentius Bellavacensis
French (Paris), 1463
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Francais 50, fol. 20v

Michelangelo also painted a far more conventional image of the creation of Eve, also on the Sistine ceiling.   It is far more static and traditional than the amazingly dynamic Creation of Adam.

Michelangelo, Creation of Eve
Italian, 1308-1512
Vatican, Sistine Chapel
© M. Duffy, 2011
1.  Steinberg, Leo.  "Who's Who in Michelangelo's Creation of Adam:  A Chronology of the Picture's Reluctant Self-Revelation", Art Bulletin, Vol. 74, Number 4, December 1992, pp. 552-566.  This article explores the chronology of attempts to identify the figures surrounding God the Father. 

O Radiant Dawn! O Sun of Justice!

Mosaic of Christ-Helios, Mausoleum of the Julii
Roman, mid-late 3rd century
Vatican, St. Peter's Basilica, Necropolis
For December 21st, the fifth "O Antiphon" reads:  "O Radiant Dawn, splendor of eternal light, sun of justice: come, shine on those who dwell in darkness and the shadow of death". 

Images of light are common metaphors for the divine and the image of the sun, especially of the sun at dawn dispelling the darkness of night, is frequently associated with Jesus.  One thinks particularly of the imagery implicit in the entry of the Paschal Candle into the darkened church at Easter Vigil, accompanied by the proclamation "Christ our Light" and the response "Thanks be to God". 

This particular "O Antiphon" of Advent brings to mind a distinct image, from the earliest period of Christian art.

This early image appears in the second half of the third century (ca. 250-300) in a tomb that has been excavated down on the lowest level of St. Peter's Basilica (see my article on St. Peter's for a description of this level).  It is a mosaic on the roof of the mausoleum of a family known as the Julii (the men would have the name Julius as the second of their three names and the women would have Julia as one of their two names).

At first glance the mosaic looks not very different from numerous pagan images showing the Greco-Roman sun god, Helios (sometimes identified with Apollo) driving his chariot through the heavens.  However, comparison with pagan images of Helios suggests a different meaning.

Relief of Helios from temple of Athena at Troy
Hellenistic, 300-280 BC
Berlin, Pergamon Museum

In the pagan images the head of Helios is surrounded by projecting sun rays that are evenly distributed and of one (or occasionally two) lengths.  No ray is specially singled out in any way.

However, on this tomb ceiling under St. Peter's, the rays look different.  There is an emphasis on several of them that makes them heavier and longer than the others.  This emphasis seems to create a cross pattern, similar to the later haloes with the cross that became standard for Christ.

Fra Angelico, Christ Crowned with Thorns
Italian, ca. 1440
Livorno, Santa Maria del Soccorso

It would, therefore, appear that the equation of Jesus with Helios, as demonstrated in this mosaic, may have resulted in the decision to attach the pagan celebration of the festival of Sol Invictus (the unconquered sun) to the Christian celebration of the birth of Jesus after the apostate Emperor Julian, grandson of Constantine, attempted to revive the pagan ethos of Rome.

It is also why the image of Christ in scenes of the Last Judgment so often show Him surrounded in a golden aura, like the sun.

Giotto, Last Judgment
Italian, 1306
Padua, Arena/Scrovegni Chapel

Fra Angelico and Workshop, Last Judgment
Italian, c. 1431
Florence, Museo di San Marco

Rogier van der Weyden, Last Judgment
Flemish, c. 1446-1452
Beaune, Musée de l'Hotel-Dieu

Jan Provost, Last Judgment
Flemish, 1525
Bruges, Groeninge Museum

Frans Francker the Younger, Last Judgment
Flemish, 1606
Private Collection

© M. Duffy, 2011

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Behold, the Handmaid of the Lord -- The Annunciation

"In the sixth month,
the angel Gabriel was sent from God
to a town of Galilee called Nazareth,
to a virgin betrothed to a man named Joseph,
of the house of David,
and the virgin's name was Mary.
And coming to her, he said,
"Hail, full of grace! The Lord is with you."
But she was greatly troubled at what was said
and pondered what sort of greeting this might be.
Then the angel said to her,
"Do not be afraid, Mary,
for you have found favor with God.
Behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son,
and you shall name him Jesus.
He will be great and will be called Son of the Most High,
and the Lord God will give him the throne of David his father,
and he will rule over the house of Jacob forever,
and of his Kingdom there will be no end."
But Mary said to the angel,
"How can this be,
since I have no relations with a man?"
And the angel said to her in reply,
"The Holy Spirit will come upon you,
and the power of the Most High will overshadow you.
Therefore the child to be born
will be called holy, the Son of God.
And behold, Elizabeth, your relative,
has also conceived a son in her old age,
and this is the sixth month for her who was called barren;
for nothing will be impossible for God."
Mary said, "Behold, I am the handmaid of the Lord.
May it be done to me according to your word."
Then the angel departed from her.
(Luke 1: 26-38)

Today (and on the Fourth Sunday of Advent) the Church reads, as the Gospel of the Mass, St. Luke's description of the point at which time divides.  From this moment, there is time before and time after, whether you call the periods on either side Before Christ (BC) or Before the Common Era (BCE) or Anno Domini (AD) or Common Era (CE), the point is the same -- Christ has come into the world.  With Mary's statement of acceptance "May it be done to me according to your word" we enter a new place, with new possibilities. 

There are countless images of the Annunciation throughout history.  Too many, in fact, to write a history of the subject in the brief confines of this blog.  Such a note would go on forever!  So, I have decided to write about only one image, the panel painting by Fra Angelico now in the Prado.  It was painted sometime between 1424 and 1426, possibly for the church of San Lorenzo in Florence, possibly for the Dominican church in Fiesole, where it was historically placed.1 

The 1420s were a time when Guido di Pietro (his Baptismal name), known as Fra Giovanni (the name Angelico was given to him posthumously on account of his paintings and life) was still a fairly young painter with a developing style.  At this point he stands on the cusp, as it were, of finding his final style.  This painting represents a point at which his earlier, delicately Gothic style was being influenced by the work of another Florentine painter, Masaccio, toward a slightly more monumental direction.  This painting is an almost perfect example of the early fusion of these two influences.  It is also a beautiful exposition of the implications of the Annunciation.

In this painting we see Mary, seated on a bench draped in fabric which also drapes the wall behind her, forming a kind of cloth of state.  She sits in an open, groin-vaulted loggia, an open prayer book on her knee, and responds gently to the approach of Gabriel, her gesture mirroring his.

Gabriel appears to have just landed, his wings still half open, his knees just beginning to bend.

From the upper left corner of the picture, the hands of God send streams of golden light toward her and, on those beams, the Holy Spirit is seen as a dove descending (just above Gabriel's head). 2

Above the column that divides Gabriel and Mary is an image of Jesus, presented as a bust in relief.  So all Persons of the Trinity appear in some way within the picture.

On Mary's side of the space, seated on the iron cross bar between the pillars, is a swallow, symbolic of the Incarnation.

The entire left side of the painting is occupied by a garden filled with highly detailed representations of plant life.  And, in this garden appears the scene from Genesis of Adam and Eve being driven out of the Garden of Eden by an angel.  We see here the tipping point of salvation history.  Mary is being invited to participate in righting the wrong done by Adam and Eve.   Her obedient fiat (Be it done to me) will cancel their disobedience in eating the forbidden fruit. 

The painting represents the moment just before the world begins anew.  Mary's yes will begin it again, with Jesus as the new Adam and Mary herself as the new Eve in a new Garden of Eden of the spirit. 

© M. Duffy, 2011
1.  Kanter, Laurence.  "Fra Angelico:  A Decade of Transition (1422-32)" in Fra Angelico, New York, New Haven and London, The Metropolitan Museum of Art and Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 80-83.  This is the catalogue of an exhibition of the work of Fra Angelico held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, October 26, 2005 - January 29, 2006. 

2.  Ferguson, George.  Signs and Symbols in Christian Art, New York, Oxford University Press, 1966, pp. 25-26.

Monday, December 19, 2011

O Sacred Lord of Ancient Israel!

Finding of Moses and Moses and the Burning Bush
Psalter of St. Louis
French (Paris), ca. 1270
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale de France
MS Latin 10525, fol. 29v

Yesterday, we began examining images that reflect the text of the so-called "O Antiphons" from Evening Prayer in the Liturgy of the Hours (also called the Divine Office) on the week preceding Christmas. 

The text for December 18th is "O sacred Lord of ancient Israel, who showed yourself to Moses in the burning bush, who gave him the holy law on Sinai mountain: come, stretch out your mighty hand to set us free"

The text refers to the apparition of God to Moses in the bush that burned but was not consumed by the flames (Exodus 3 and 4).  While nowadays we tend to imagine that the Presence which spoke to Moses out of the burning bush equates to God the Father, the term "God" actually includes all the Persons of the Trinity:  Father, Son and Holy Spirit.  And this is certainly what has been in the minds of the artists of the medieval period in their images of the burning bush. 

Nearly every image of Moses and the Burning Bush that I have seen from the medieval period shows a figure easily identifiable as Christ appearing inside the bush.  The crossed nimbus (halo) is a giveaway.

Moses and the Burning Bush
Huntingfield Psalter
English, 1210-1220
New York, Morgan Library
MS M 43, fol.13r
(The "horns" shown on Moses' head are the result of a misreading of the text of Exodus which refers to rays of light shining from Moses following his encounter with God.)

Workshop of the Boucicaut Master
Moses and the Burning Bush
French (Ile-de-France), 1400 - 1424
New York, Morgan Library
MS M 394, fol. 41v

And, interestingly (considering the Advent context of the O Antiphon quoted above), several images present the episode of the Burning Bush in direct apposition with the Annunciation or the Nativity.   The apparition to Moses is here being equated with the visit of the angel Gabriel to Mary or the birth of Jesus.

Annunciation with Moses and the Burning Bush
Tres Belles Heures de Notre Dame de Jean de Berri
Netherlandish, ca. 1400
Turin, Museo Civico d'Arte Antica

Nativity with Moses and the Burning Bush
Hours of the Virgin
French (Rouen), 1495-1505
New York, Morgan Library
MS M 129, fol. 35r

In a sense, each of these events signals the beginning of a new phase in the relationship between God and humanity.  For Moses and the people of Israel, the Burning Bush signals the beginning of their release from bondage and the giving of the Law of the Ten Commandments.  For Christians, the new Israel, the Annunciation signals the entrance of Christ, the very Word of God, into our human condition and the beginning of a new Law of Love.

In addition, the bush itself, which burns but is not consumed by the flames, was seen as a reference to Mary who, while remaining a virgin, gives birth to Son of God. 

One of the most astonishing images in this iconography is the central panel of an altarpiece painted by the French master, Nicolas Froment in 1476.   It shows Moses, surrounded by his sheep and with his dog at his side, in the process of removing his shoes, as he was commanded.  Beside him stands an angel, to whose presence Moses reacts with astonishment.  This angel is dressed much as Gabriel is dressed in numerous 15th-century Netherlandish paintings, in a cope worn over an alb.

Nicolas Froment, The Burning Bush
French, 1476
Aix-en-Provence, Cathedral

Even more astonishing is that the apparition in the burning bush is not of the adult Christ (as it is in other images) but is an apparition of the Madonna and Child.  In this picture, the allusion to the Annunciation and Nativity so long paired with the Burning Bush, have become one image.

© M. Duffy, 2011

Sunday, December 18, 2011

O Wisdom, O Holy Word of God!

Christ Pantocrator
Byzantine, 1145-1160
Cefalu, Cathedral
In the week before Christmas, the Liturgy of the Hours (the official daily prayer of the Church) includes a series of special antiphons preceeding the recitation of the Magnificat (Luke 1: 46-55), collectively called the O Antiphons.  In the English-speaking world we are most familiar with them as they are paraphrased in the well-known Advent hymn "O Come, O Come Emmanuel". 

The antiphon for December 17th is "O Wisdom, O holy Word of God, you govern all creation with your strong yet tender care. Come and show your people the way to salvation."

The image which this antiphon brings to mind is the image of Christ Pantocrator.  This is an image most common in the Byzantine tradition, although it is known in the West, especially in the great medieval cathedrals of Sicily.  Traditionally, Christ is shown in this image as the Divine Lawgiver and Ruler, one hand raised in blessing, the other holding a book, whether open or shut.  The book alludes to the Word of God, which He Is.

The image developed first in the late Roman Empire as it became a Christian empire.  Initially its appearance is tied to projects undertaken for the Imperial family itself.

Christ in Majesty
Roman, c. 350
Rome, Church of Santa Costanza
Santa Costanza was built as a tomb for the Constantina, daughter of Constantine, the Emperor who recognized Christianity as a valid religion and then embraced it himself, making it not just a recognized religion, but the religion of the empire.

Christ in Majesty
Roman, c. 400
Rome, Church of Santa Pudenziana

Christ in Majesty
Byzantine, c. 526-547
Ravenna, Church of San Vitale

In the south of Europe (Greece, Italy and Sicily) this Imperial-based figure developed into the image of the Christ Pantocrater.  

In northern Europe it took a slightly less dramatic turn and developed into the Christ in Majesty figure which remained popular for many centuries.  It saw its first development in manuscript painting (illumination) under the Carolingian and Ottonian Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, from the eighth century.

Christ in Majesty
From the Codex Aureus of Lorsch
German, c. 778-830
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
MS   , fol. 72v

Christ in Majesty
From the Fulda Sacramentary
French (Corvey), c. 960-1000
Munich, Bayerisches Staatsbibliothek
MS Clm 10077, fol. 11v

Christ in Majesty
From a Gospel Lectionary
German (Possibly Echternach), c. 1000-1033
Munich, Bayerische Staats
MS Clm 11327, fol. 2

Christ in Majesty
From a Gospel Book
German (Ottobeuren), c. 1165
Munich, Bayerisches Staatsbibliothek
MS Clm 21255, fol.  20v

Christ in Majesty
From the Melk Missal
Austrian (Melk or Seitenstetten), Late 12th-Early 13th Century
Baltimore, Walters Art Museum
MS  W.33, fol.  1v

Later, it received broader development in the developing nation states of the later Middle Ages.

Christ in Majesty
Enameled Book Cover
French (Limoges), Early 13th Century
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Christ in Majesty
From the Psalter of St. Louis and Blanche of Castille
French c. 1225
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Arsenal 1186, fol.28

Christ in Majesty
From the Livre d’images de Madame Marie
Flemish (Hainaut), c. 1275-1300
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Nouvelle acquisition francaise 16251, fol. 51v

The Rohan Master, Christ in Majesty
From the Hours of Rene of Anjou
French (Paris), c. 1435-1436
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Lat 1156 A, fol. 97

Hans Memling, Christ Surrounded by Angels
Center of a Triptych
Flemish, 1480s
Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten

© M. Duffy, 2011 with additional material 2020