Monday, December 31, 2012

"Jesus, Mary and Joseph!" – The Holy Family

Adoration of the Magi
Earliest known image of the childhood of Jesus
Early Christian painting, 3rd Century AD
Rome, Catacomb of Priscilla
Anyone who grew up in an Irish-American Catholic family in the 1950s or 1960s is probably familiar with the expression “Jesus, Mary and Joseph!” which served as an expression of astonishment, amazement or even anger more often than as a pious invocation.

Similarly, one may be familiar with the pious custom of heading written documents with the initials JMJ, usually accompanied by a cross that was very common during the same time period. Both refer to the Holy Family of Jesus, Mary and Joseph. However, the entire concept of “the Holy Family” is a relatively recent one, with the feast of the Holy Family being established only a little more than 100 years ago, in 1893.

Indeed, during the entire first millennium, the concept was completely missing from the visual arts. All references to the early years of Jesus’ life focused on mother and Child. It was they who appeared in the catacombs and in the mosaics that decorated the early Christian churches. And it is the Madonna and Child in stained glass and sculpture that decorated the Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals of medieval Europe.

Window Known as "Notre-Dame de la Belle Verriere"
French, c. 1150
Chartres, Cathedral of Notre-Dame

Enthroned Virgin and Child
French (Auvergne), c. 1150-1200
New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Cloisters Collection

Our Lady of Paris
French, Early 14th Century
Paris, Cathedral of Notre-Dame

Rogier van der Weyden, Enthroned Madonna and Child
Flemish, c.1430
Madrid, Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection

As we have previously seen,1 St. Joseph, in spite of his important appearances in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, was absent or relegated to the far background of Nativity scenes, almost always shown as a very elderly man or little more than a servant. This position only began to change and to soften during the course of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

Guido da Siena, Nativity
Italian, c. 1275-1280
Paris, Musée du Louvre

The Limbourg Brothers (Herman, Jean and Pol), Adoration of the Shepherds
From the Tres Belles Heures de Jean de France, Duc de Berry
French (Paris), c. 1405-1409
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Cloisters Collection
MS 54.1.1a b, Fol. 48v 

Pietro Perugino, Nativity
Italian, c. 1500-1505
Chicago, Art Institute

Yet, even as the figure of Joseph began to become more prominent, younger and more involved he was still kept subtly separate from the traditional grouping of Madonna and Child. Often, he appears in the background or on the other side of some physical separation from Mary and Jesus or is oriented in a different direction.

Niclaus Weckmann, Holy Family
German, c. 1500
New  York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Hans Baldung Gruen, Rest on the Flight into Egypt
German, c, 1512
Vienna, Akademie der bildenden Künste

Joos van Cleve, Holy Family
Flemish, c. 1515
Vienna, Akademie der bildenden Künste

Agnolo Bronzino, Holy Family with St. John the Baptist
Italian, c. 1540
Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi 

It appears that it wasn’t until the seventeenth century that Joseph began to come into his own as a fully rounded figure represented as equal in position to Mary.

It is in the Low Countries and Spain (which were tied together politically for much of this period) that the familiar image of the Holy Family of Jesus, Mary and Joseph emerges.

Matthias Stom, Holy Family
Dutch, c. 1640s
Barcelona, Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya

Jusepe Ribera, Holy Family with St. Catherine
Spanish, 1648
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Noel Halle, The Holy Family
French, 1753
Hartford, Wadsworth Atheneum

This happier view of the Holy Family carried over into the Spanish colonies in the New World as well.  Spanish colonial painters produced some of the most charming images of the Holy Family and of Joseph particularly.

Jose de Alciber, The Ministry of Saint Joseph
Mexican, c. 1771
Mexico City, Museo Nacional de Arte

José de Alcíbar, The Blessing of the Table
Mexican, c. 1780-1800
Mexico City, Museo Nacional de Arte

Among the most striking of Holy Family images is the unusual subject called the Return to Nazareth from Egypt. As opposed to the more familiar Flight Into Egypt,2 which depicts the baby Jesus being taken to Egypt to escape Herod, the iconography of this subject shows Jesus as a young boy (no longer a baby or toddler) walking while holding the hand of one or both parents.  The earliest example I've found of this theme dates to the late fifteenth century and the latest to the eighteenth century.

Rambures Master, Return to Nazareth from Egypt
from Biblia pauperum
Northern French or Femish (Hesdin or Amiens), c. 1470
The Hague, Meermano Museum
MS.  MMW 10 A 15, fol. 24v

Jacob Jordaens, Return to Nazareth from Egypt
Flemish, c. 1616
Berlin, Staatliche Museen

Other striking images are found in paintings called The Two Trinities.

One, by the Spaniard Bartolome Murillo shows the boy Jesus as a participant in both the earthly trinity and the heavenly one.

Bartolome Murillo, The Two Trinities
Spanish, c. 1675-1682
London, National Gallery

Another, even more striking painting, by the Italian Carlo Dolci, shows the adult Jesus seated between Mary and Joseph. In both paintings it is Joseph who assumes the more active role, while Mary remains contemplative, “pondering all these things”. In the Dolci Joseph is actively and attentively listening to Jesus; while in the Murillo he gazes out of the picture at us with a gesture that presents Jesus to us.

Carlo Dolci, The Two Trinities
Italian, c. 1630
Private Collection

Into the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries both images of the Holy Family, that with the subsidiary Joseph and that with the more equal Joseph, continued to be produced.

Jean-Antoine Watteau, Holy Family
French, c. 1717-1718
St. Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum

Jacob de Wit, Two Trinities
Dutch, 1726
Amsterdam, Amstelkring Museum
(In spite of its title this picture clearly also belongs in the tradition of the Return to Nazareth from Egypt mentioned above.)

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Holy Family Appearing to St. Gaetano
Italian, c. 1735-1736
Venice, Gallerie dell'Accademia

Francisco de Goya, Holy Family with the Child Saint John the Baptist
Spanish, c. 1788-1789
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Martin Johann Schmidt, Holy Kindred
Austrian, 1786
Vienna, Belvedere Museum

These last two versions of the subject also include the very young Saint John the Baptist.  

In the nineteenth century it became possible to think of what family life at Nazareth might actually have looked like.   So, painters imagined Joseph working at his carpentry trade or assisting in the education of the child Jesus.

Johann Evangelist Scheffer von Leonhartshoff, Holy Family
German, c. 1815
Berlin, Nationalgalerie der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin

John Everett Millais, Christ in the House of His Parents (The Carpenter's Shop)
English, c. 1849-1850
London, Tate Gallery

However, as time has advanced I think it is safe to say that the words “Holy Family” now principally bring to mind the late, more equal Joseph whose role is perhaps most charmingly shown in a painting of the Holy Family With A Little Bird by Murillo.

Bartolome Esteban Murillo, Holy Family With A Little Bird
Spanish, 1650
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

1.  Margaret Duffy, "St. Joseph, Spouse As Mousetrap", Ad Imaginem Dei blog, Tuesday, May 1, 2012,

2.  See several essays on the iconographic traditions for the subjects of the "Flight into Egypt" and the "Rest on the Flight into Egypt".  They may be found at the following links:

The Flight into Egypt -- The Holy Refugees
The Flight Into Egypt -- The Variations

The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, Part I of 3

Wednesday, August 8, 2012

Saint Dominic

Fra Angelico, Saint Dominic
Italian, 1447-1448
Perugia, Galleria Nazionale dell'Umbria

Saint Dominic, founder of the Order of Preachers (the Dominicans), along with his near contemporary, St. Francis, was one of the most influential saints of the middle ages, whose personal qualities continue to live on in the contemporary world through their spiritual sons and daughters.


Bartolo di Fredi, Saint Dominic
Italian, 1397
Chambery, Musée des Beaux-Arts

Dominic, or Domingo de Guzman y Aza, was born in northern Spain around the year 1170. His family appears to have belonged to the minor nobility of Castille. As a child and young adult he studied at the University of Palencia, the first university established in Spain (later absorbed by the nearby University of Salamanca). In his early life, while still a student, he became a canon of the cathedral of Osma and was ordained for that service, in which he assisted his bishop in reforming the cathedral chapter into a congregation of Augustinian canons.

Dominic must have been a very outstanding person because he was chosen by the King of Castille to undertake various diplomatic missions, while still quite young. It was on one of these missions, to southern France, that he first became aware of the Albigensian or Cathar heresy, which was then sweeping through that region.

The Albigensians (the name comes from the town of Albi in southern France) were essentially Manicheans, holding “a dualistic conception of reality, that is, with two equally powerful creator principles, Good and Evil. This group consequently despised matter as coming from the principle of evil. They even refused marriage, and went to the point of denying the Incarnation of Christ and the sacraments in which the Lord "touches" us through matter, and the resurrection of bodies.”1

Some of the success which this view of reality had achieved came about because the people of the region were not well instructed in the orthodox Christian faith. Preaching and instruction were virtually non-existent in the region and the lives of the clergy were often not models of good Christian life. Itinerant preachers with austere lives were hallmarks of the Albigensians. Dominic saw that what was needed was a Catholic response which provided excellent preaching from men whose lives were as austere as those of the Albigensians. This was the mission that he now took on.

Initially, he was alone in his mission, but gradually he was joined by other men who wanted to follow his example. The Order of Preachers was founded in 1216 in the city of Toulouse, in southern France. It was eventually followed by an order for women and, finally, by an associated order for lay people (a Third Order).  All the branches of this religious family have produced an astonishing number of saints and blesseds over the intervening 800 years.

Dominic’s religious men were known as friars (like the followers of St. Francis) and they were assigned to missions in towns and cities (again like the Franciscans).
Giovanni Bellini, Portrait of Fra Teodoro of Urbino as Saint Dominic
Italian, 1515
London, National Gallery

Higher education was an important goal for them, as they needed the knowledge and skills learned in universities to perform their preaching function. To this end Dominicans were associated early on with the first universities, especially with the University of Paris and the University of Bologna. From this focus on education quickly came two great Dominican saints, Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas.

El Greco, Saint Dominic in Prayer
Greek, 1586-1590
Private Collection

After many years of hard, but successful, work Dominic died in 1221 at the age of 51.
Giuseppe Maria Mazza, Death of Saint Dominic
Italian, 1715-1735
Venice, Basilica dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo

He was canonized thirteen years later, in 1234. His feast day is August 8th.

Pierre le Gros the Younger, Saint Dominic
French, 1706
Vatican, Basilica of St. Peter

Earliest Images

The earliest images of Saint Dominic appear just after the middle of the 13th century, just a few decades after his death. They appear in a manuscript prayer manual intended for the formation of Dominican novices, called De modo orandi.

Unknown, Saint Dominic in Prayer
From 15th Century Spanish copy of 13th Century De modo orandi 
Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
MS Lat. Rossianus 3, fol. 6r

Unknown, Saint Dominic in Prayer
From 15th Century Spanish copy of 13th Century De modo orandi 
Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
MS Lat. Rossianus 3, fol. 6v

Unknown, Saint Dominic in Prayer
From 15th Century Spanish copy of 13th Century De modo orandi 
Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
MS Lat. Rossianus 3, fol. 12r

It purports to show the modes of prayer practiced by Saint Dominic by showing the postures that Dominic had been observed to use in prayer. Approximately 150 years later it may have been highly influential on the Dominican painter Fra Angelico in his designs for the decoration of the cells of the Dominican convent of San Marco in Florence. 2

Later Image Types

Images of Saint Dominic generally appear in several different types.

With Attributes
There is the iconic image of Saint Dominic with his traditional attributes of lily, book and, often, a dog with a burning torch in its mouth. The latter is a reference to the sometimes nickname of the Dominican order, which is a wordplay on the order’s popular name in Latin (Dominicanes). By splitting the word into two other Latin words, Domini canes, you get – the dogs of the Lord. “This was itself based on a dream which St Dominic's mother, Blessed Juana de Aza, had in 1170 when she was pregnant: she saw a black and white dog with a torch in its mouth setting the world ablaze. This was interpreted to refer to St Dominic and his spiritual children, the Dominican Order - in their black and white habits - whose preaching brings the light of Gospel truth to shine upon and inflame the world with divine love.”3

Later images of the saint may also include a different non-human element, a demon.  This demon represents the heretical teachings that Dominic founded the Order of Preachers to counteract.  In these images Dominic spears the demon with the cross, indicating the triumph of Christian truth over heresy

Guerau Gener and Goncal Peris, Saint Dominic and Four Saints
Spanish, c. 1405
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Carlo Crivelli, Saint Dominic
From the Demidoff Altarpiece
Italian, c. 1476
London, National Gallery

Pedro Berruguete, Saint Dominic de Guzman
Spanish, c. 1491-1499
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Ambrosius Benson, Saint Dominic
Flemish, c. 1528
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Juan Correa de Vivar, Saint Dominic de Guzman
Spanish, c. 1530-1566
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Fray Juan Bautista Maino, Saint Dominc de Guzman
Spanish, c. 1612-1614
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Gaspar de Crayer, Saint Dominic
Flemish, c. 1655
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Claudio Coello, Saint Dominic
Spanish, 1685
Madrid, Museo del Prado

In a Group of Saints
At times Dominic is alone, sometimes he appears in the company of other saints in a “sacra conversazione”.

Simone Martini, Orvieto Polyptych (Madonna and Child with Saints Peter, Mary Magdalene, Paul and Dominic)
Italian, 1321
Orvieto, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo

Benozzo Gozzoli, The Virgin and Child Enthroned Among Angels with Saints Zenobius, John the Baptist, Jerome, Francis, Peter and Dominic
Italian, c. 1461-1462
London, National Gallery

Filippino Lippi, The Virgin and Child with Saints Jerome and Dominic
Italian, c. 1485
London, National Gallery

Giovanni Bellini, Madonna and Child Enthroned with Musical Angels and Saints Francis, John the Baptist, Job, Dominic, Sebastian and Louis of Toulouse 
The San Giobbe Altarpiece
Italian, ca. 1487
Venice, Galleria dell'Accademia

Giovanni Bellini, Saints Dominic, Sebastian and Louis of Toulouse
Detail of the San Giobbe Altarpiece
Italian, ca. 1487
Venice, Galleria dell'Accademia

The saints chosen to accompany Saint Dominic may be popular saints as in the images above, or they may be saints specific to the Dominican order.  The choice is determined largely by the patron who ordered the work of art.

Garofalo, The Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints Dominic and Catherine of Siena
Called The Madonna della Scimmia
Italian, c. 1499-1502
London, National Gallery

The Virgin of the Rosary with Saints Dominic and Peter Martyr
Spanish, c. 1530-1570
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Francesco Maffei, Madonna and Child with Saints Dominic and Catherine of Alexandria
Italian, 1650
Private Collection

Gianantonio Guardi, Madonna and Child with Saints Dominic and Rose of LIma
Italian, c. 1740
Budapest, Szepmuveszeti Muzeum

Gianantonio Guardi, Madonna and Child with Saints Augustine, Dominic, Catherine of Alexandria, Sebastian and Jerome
Italian, c. 1746-1748
Belvedere di Aquileia, Parish Church

Historical Scenes

Another series of images shows scenes from the historic life of Saint Dominic.

Scenes from the Life of Saint Dominic
From Hours of Louis of Savoy
French (Savoy), c. 1445-1460
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Latin 9473, fol. 173v

Leandro Bassano, Pope Honorius III Approving the Rule of Saint Dominic in 1216
Italian, c. 1600-1622
Venice, Basilica dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo

Legendary and Semi-Legendary Scenes 

Others show legendary scenes, scenes from the realm of faith, that may or may not have happened.

There are miraculous scenes from his early life.

Dream of Innocent III
From a Psalter Hours
English, c. 1400-1450
London, British Library
MS Harley 2356, fol. 8v

Fra Angelico Workshop, The Virgin Consigning the Habit to Saint Dominic
Italian, c. 1433-1434
Cortona, Museo Diocesano

There are scenes from his days of preaching.

Miracle of the Cloud

Pedro Berruguete, The Miracle of the Cloud
Spanish, c. 1493-1499
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Miracle of the Book

Especially popular was a supposed episode from his early career in which, in a kind of trial by fire, a manuscript written by Dominic that listed the scriptural authorities for Catholic doctrine was cast into the fire by the Albigensians.  The manuscript sprang out of the fire unharmed again and again. 4

The Miracle of the Book
From a Book of Prayers
Flemish (Brussels), c. 1276-1296
London, British Library
MS Harley 2449, fol. 160r

Jacques de Besancon, The Miracle of the Book
From Legenda Aurea by Jacopo de Voragine
French (Paris), c. 1480-1490
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Francais 245, fol. 23r

Dominco Ghirlandaio, Miracle of the Book
Italian, c. 1486-1490
Florence, S. Maria Novella, Tornabuoni Chapel

Pedro Berruguete, Saint Dominic and the Albigensians
Spanish, c. 1493-1499
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

There are also:

Two Raisings from the Dead

Benozzo Gozzoli, Saint Dominic Raises a Child
Italian, 1461
Milan, Pinacoteca di Brera

Pedro Berruguete, Saint Dominic Raises a Boy
Spanish, c. 1493-1499
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Lorenzo Lotto, Saint Dominic Raises Napoleone Orsini
Italian, c. 1513-1516
Bergamo, Accademia Carrara

 A Miraculous Feeding of His Friars by Angels 

Giovanni Antonio Sogliani, Saint Dominic and His Friars Fed by Angels
Italian, 1536
Florence, Convent of San Marco

An Apparition by the Blessed Virgin 

During this apparition the Blessed Virgin Mary presented him with the rosary, a prayer discipline that he helped to popularize.
Lorenzo Lotto, Madonna of the Rosary
Italian, c. 1539
Cinoli, Church of San Nicolo

Caravaggio, Madonna of the Rosary
Italian, c. 1607
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum

Bernardo Cavallino, Vision of Saint Dominic
Italian, c. 1640-1645
Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada

Follower of Luca Giordano, Virgin of the Rosary
Italian, Late 17th- Early 18th Century
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Other Mystical or Symbolic Encounters of Saint Dominic

Visions of Saint Dominic

Santi di Tito, Saints Peter and Paul Appear to Saint Dominic
Italian, c. 1570-1590
Florence, Church of Santa Maria Novella, Great Cloister

Zacarias Gonzalez Velazquez, Vision of Saints Francis of Assisi and Dominic de Guzman
Spanish, c. 1787
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado 

The Miracle of Saint Dominic at Soriano

Paintings on this subject represent the miracle purported to have occurred at the Dominican monastery in Soriano in southern Italy.  In this miracle, three women brought a painting of Saint Dominic to the church on three successive nights.  As the website of the Prado museum states it:

"The episode depicted is that of the miracle that took place in the relatively minor Dominican monastery in Soriano Calabro (Vibo Valentia, Calabria, Italy) on 15 September 1530. On that night, three women appeared to a lay brother and gave him a rolled up canvas of a portrait of Saint Dominic. The mysterious vision took place again over three consecutive nights during which various issues gradually became clear: the women were the Virgin, Saint Catherine of Siena and Mary Magdalene, who had come to the monastery to bring the vera effigie of the founder of the Dominican order as that building lacked a worthy image of the saint. The likeness is described in detail in the Raccolta by Silvestro Frangipane, which is the first account on the monastery in Soriano."5

This became a much favored subject for Spanish and Italian artists of the 17th Century.  

Giovanni Battista Giustammiani known as Il Francesino, Miracle of San Dominic in Soriano
Italian, First Half of 17th Century
Greve in Chianti, Museo di San Francesco

Workshop of Francisco de Zurbaran, Miracle of Saint Dominic in Soriano
Spanish, c. 1626-1627
Seville, Church of Santa Maria Magdalena

Fray Juan Bautista Maino, Miracle of Saint Dominic in Soriano
Spanish, c.  1629
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Matteo Rosselli, Miracle of Saint Dominic in Soriano
Italian, c. 1640
Florence, Church of San Marco

Jacopo Vignali, Miracle of Saint Dominic in Soriano
Italian, c. 1650
Florence, Convent of San Marco

Alonso Cano, Miracle of Saint Dominic in Soriano
Spanish, c. 1652-1657
Indianapolis, Museum of Art

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, The Miracle of Saint Dominic at Soriano with Saint Ambrose
Italian, c. 1655
Genoa, Church of Santa Maria di Castello

Antonio de Pereda, Miracle of Saint Dominic in Soriano
Spanish, c. 1655
Madrid, Museo Cerralbo

Andres Amaya, Miracle of Saint Dominic at Soriano
Spanish, c. 1670-1704
Valladolid, Museo Nacional de Escultura

Images by Fra Angelico

Among the most affecting images of Dominic appear in the paintings by Fra Angelico in the cells of the friars at San Marco in Florence. In many of these paintings the saint appears as a prayerful observer of the event depicted.

Fra Angelico, Crucifixion with Saint Dominic
Italian, 1442
Florence, Convent of San Marco, Cell 17

Fra Angelico, Entombment of Christ
Italian, 1442
Florence, Convent of San Marco, Cell 2

Fra Angelico, The Mocking of Christ
Italian, 1442
Florence, Convent of San Marco, Cell 7

By Other Artists
The same motif appears in the work of other painters as well.

Rogier van der Weyden, Lamentation with Saints Jerome and Dominic and Donor
Flemish, c. 1464
London, National Gallery

Mario Vasaiti, Christ Praying in the Garden with Saints Francis and Dominic
Italian, 1510-1516
Venice, Accademia

Patron and Intercessor
There are also images of St. Dominic as a powerful patron of others.

Hans Memling, Madonna and Child with Saints James and Dominic and Donor Family
Flemish, 1488-1490
Paris, Musée du Louvre

Fernanco Gallego, Madonna of the Catholic Kings Showing Saint Dominic as patron of Queen Isabella and his namesake, Saint Dominic of Silos, as patron of King Ferdinand
Spanish, 1490-1495
Madrid, Museo del Prado

Albrecht Dürer, Feast of the Rose Garlands
German, 1506
Prague, National Gallery

Titian, Madonna and Child with Saints Catherine and Dominic with a Donor
Italian, 1512-1516
Mamiano di Traversetolo, Fondazione Magnani Rocca

Mateo Cerezo, The Judgment of a Soul
Spanish, c. 1663-1664
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
Here Saints Dominic and Francis intercede for the soul of a man who is undergoing the particular judgment.

And there are many images, appearing rather later in time, of the reception of Saint Dominic in heaven.

Guido Reni, Saint Dominic in Glory
Italian, 1613
Bologna, Church of San Domenico

Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, St. Dominic in Glory
Italian, 1727
Venice, Basilica dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Apotheosis of St. Dominic
Italian, 1737-1739
Venice, Santa Maria del Rosario

Among them are images of St. Francis and St. Dominic, who never met on earth, embracing.
Andrea della Robbia, Meeting of Saints Dominic and Francis
Italian, 1493-1495
Florence, Convent of San Marco

These two great saints planted seeds in the 13th century that have grown and flourished through the centuries that followed and now, in the 21st century continue the mission of their founders.

1. Pope Benedict XVI, Catechesis on St. Dominic, February 3, 2010. Translation at :

2. Hood, William, "Saint Dominic's Manners of Praying: Gestures in Fra Angelico's Cell Frescoes at S. Marco", Art Bulletin, Volume LXVIII, Number 2, June 1986, pp. 195-206.

3. From Godzdogz, the blog of the English student Domincians at

4.  The Golden Legend or Lives of the Saints, Volume 4, p. 82.  Compiled by Jacobus de Voragine, Archbishop of Genoa, 1275. First Edition Published 1470. Englished by William Caxton, First Edition 1483, Edited by F.S. Ellis, Temple Classics, 1900 (Reprinted 1922, 1931.) at

© M. Duffy, 2012, new images added 2019, additional new images and text added 2022