Wednesday, August 8, 2012

Saint Dominic


Fra Angelico, Saint Dominic
Italian, 1447-1448
Perugia, Galleria Nazionale dell'Umbria















Saint Dominic, founder of the Order of Preachers (the Dominicans), along with his near contemporary, St. Francis, was one of the most influential saints of the middle ages, whose personal qualities continue to live on in the contemporary world through their spiritual sons and daughters.













Biography

Bartolo di Fredi, Saint Dominic
Italian, 1397
Chambery, Musée des Beaux-Arts

Dominic, or Domingo de Guzman y Aza, was born in northern Spain around the year 1170. His family appears to have belonged to the minor nobility of Castille. As a child and young adult he studied at the University of Palencia, the first university established in Spain (later absorbed by the nearby University of Salamanca). In his early life, while still a student, he became a canon of the cathedral of Osma and was ordained for that service, in which he assisted his bishop in reforming the cathedral chapter into a congregation of Augustinian canons.

Dominic must have been a very outstanding person because he was chosen by the King of Castille to undertake various diplomatic missions, while still quite young. It was on one of these missions, to southern France, that he first became aware of the Albigensian or Cathar heresy, which was then sweeping through that region.

The Albigensians (the name comes from the town of Albi in southern France) were essentially Manicheans, holding “a dualistic conception of reality, that is, with two equally powerful creator principles, Good and Evil. This group consequently despised matter as coming from the principle of evil. They even refused marriage, and went to the point of denying the Incarnation of Christ and the sacraments in which the Lord "touches" us through matter, and the resurrection of bodies.”1

Some of the success which this view of reality had achieved came about because the people of the region were not well instructed in the orthodox Christian faith. Preaching and instruction were virtually non-existent in the region and the lives of the clergy were often not models of good Christian life. Itinerant preachers with austere lives were hallmarks of the Albigensians. Dominic saw that what was needed was a Catholic response which provided excellent preaching from men whose lives were as austere as those of the Albigensians. This was the mission that he now took on.

Initially, he was alone in his mission, but gradually he was joined by other men who wanted to follow his example. The Order of Preachers was founded in 1216 in the city of Toulouse, in southern France. It was eventually followed by an order for women and, finally, by an associated order for lay people (a Third Order).  All the branches of this religious family have produced an astonishing number of saints and blesseds over the intervening 800 years.

Dominic’s religious men were known as friars (like the followers of St. Francis) and they were assigned to missions in towns and cities (again like the Franciscans).
Giovanni Bellini, Portrait of Fra Teodoro of Urbino as Saint Dominic
Italian, 1515
London, National Gallery

Higher education was an important goal for them, as they needed the knowledge and skills learned in universities to perform their preaching function. To this end Dominicans were associated early on with the first universities, especially with the University of Paris and the University of Bologna. From this focus on education quickly came two great Dominican saints, Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas.

El Greco, Saint Dominic in Prayer
Greek, 1586-1590
Private Collection

After many years of hard, but successful, work Dominic died in 1221 at the age of 51.
Giuseppe Maria Mazza, Death of Saint Dominic
Italian, 1715-1735
Venice, Basilica dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo

He was canonized thirteen years later, in 1234. His feast day is August 8th.

Pierre le Gros the Younger, Saint Dominic
French, 1706
Vatican, Basilica of St. Peter


Earliest Images

The earliest images of Saint Dominic appear just after the middle of the 13th century, just a few decades after his death. They appear in a manuscript prayer manual intended for the formation of Dominican novices, called De modo orandi.

Unknown, Saint Dominic in Prayer
From 15th Century Spanish copy of 13th Century De modo orandi 
Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
MS Lat. Rossianus 3, fol. 6r


Unknown, Saint Dominic in Prayer
From 15th Century Spanish copy of 13th Century De modo orandi 
Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
MS Lat. Rossianus 3, fol. 6v



Unknown, Saint Dominic in Prayer
From 15th Century Spanish copy of 13th Century De modo orandi 
Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
MS Lat. Rossianus 3, fol. 12r


It purports to show the modes of prayer practiced by Saint Dominic by showing the postures that Dominic had been observed to use in prayer. Approximately 150 years later it may have been highly influential on the Dominican painter Fra Angelico in his designs for the decoration of the cells of the Dominican convent of San Marco in Florence. 2


Later Image Types


Images of Saint Dominic generally appear in several different types.

With Attributes
There is the iconic image of Saint Dominic with his traditional attributes of lily, book and, often, a dog with a burning torch in its mouth. The latter is a reference to the sometimes nickname of the Dominican order, which is a wordplay on the order’s popular name in Latin (Dominicanes). By splitting the word into two other Latin words, Domini canes, you get – the dogs of the Lord. “This was itself based on a dream which St Dominic's mother, Blessed Juana de Aza, had in 1170 when she was pregnant: she saw a black and white dog with a torch in its mouth setting the world ablaze. This was interpreted to refer to St Dominic and his spiritual children, the Dominican Order - in their black and white habits - whose preaching brings the light of Gospel truth to shine upon and inflame the world with divine love.”3

Later images of the saint may also include a different non-human element, a demon.  This demon represents the heretical teachings that Dominic founded the Order of Preachers to counteract.  In these images Dominic spears the demon with the cross, indicating the triumph of Christian truth over heresy
.  

Guerau Gener and Goncal Peris, Saint Dominic and Four Saints
Spanish, c. 1405
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado



Carlo Crivelli, Saint Dominic
From the Demidoff Altarpiece
Italian, c. 1476
London, National Gallery


Pedro Berruguete, Saint Dominic de Guzman
Spanish, c. 1491-1499
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado


Ambrosius Benson, Saint Dominic
Flemish, c. 1528
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Juan Correa de Vivar, Saint Dominic de Guzman
Spanish, c. 1530-1566
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado


Fray Juan Bautista Maino, Saint Dominc de Guzman
Spanish, c. 1612-1614
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado


Gaspar de Crayer, Saint Dominic
Flemish, c. 1655
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado


Claudio Coello, Saint Dominic
Spanish, 1685
Madrid, Museo del Prado



In a Group of Saints
At times Dominic is alone, sometimes he appears in the company of other saints in a “sacra conversazione”.

Simone Martini, Orvieto Polyptych (Madonna and Child with Saints Peter, Mary Magdalene, Paul and Dominic)
Italian, 1321
Orvieto, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo


Benozzo Gozzoli, The Virgin and Child Enthroned Among Angels with Saints Zenobius, John the Baptist, Jerome, Francis, Peter and Dominic
Italian, c. 1461-1462
London, National Gallery


Filippino Lippi, The Virgin and Child with Saints Jerome and Dominic
Italian, c. 1485
London, National Gallery


Giovanni Bellini, Madonna and Child Enthroned with Musical Angels and Saints Francis, John the Baptist, Job, Dominic, Sebastian and Louis of Toulouse 
The San Giobbe Altarpiece
Italian, ca. 1487
Venice, Galleria dell'Accademia


Giovanni Bellini, Saints Dominic, Sebastian and Louis of Toulouse
Detail of the San Giobbe Altarpiece
Italian, ca. 1487
Venice, Galleria dell'Accademia

The saints chosen to accompany Saint Dominic may be popular saints as in the images above, or they may be saints specific to the Dominican order.  The choice is determined largely by the patron who ordered the work of art.

Garofalo, The Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints Dominic and Catherine of Siena
Called The Madonna della Scimmia
Italian, c. 1499-1502
London, National Gallery


The Virgin of the Rosary with Saints Dominic and Peter Martyr
Spanish, c. 1530-1570
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado


Francesco Maffei, Madonna and Child with Saints Dominic and Catherine of Alexandria
Italian, 1650
Private Collection


Gianantonio Guardi, Madonna and Child with Saints Dominic and Rose of LIma
Italian, c. 1740
Budapest, Szepmuveszeti Muzeum


Gianantonio Guardi, Madonna and Child with Saints Augustine, Dominic, Catherine of Alexandria, Sebastian and Jerome
Italian, c. 1746-1748
Belvedere di Aquileia, Parish Church



Historical Scenes

Another series of images shows scenes from the historic life of Saint Dominic.

Scenes from the Life of Saint Dominic
From Hours of Louis of Savoy
French (Savoy), c. 1445-1460
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Latin 9473, fol. 173v


Leandro Bassano, Pope Honorius III Approving the Rule of Saint Dominic in 1216
Italian, c. 1600-1622
Venice, Basilica dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo


Legendary and Semi-Legendary Scenes 

Others show legendary scenes, scenes from the realm of faith, that may or may not have happened.

There are miraculous scenes from his early life.

Dream of Innocent III
From a Psalter Hours
English, c. 1400-1450
London, British Library
MS Harley 2356, fol. 8v


Fra Angelico Workshop, The Virgin Consigning the Habit to Saint Dominic
Italian, c. 1433-1434
Cortona, Museo Diocesano


There are scenes from his days of preaching.

Miracle of the Cloud

Pedro Berruguete, The Miracle of the Cloud
Spanish, c. 1493-1499
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Miracle of the Book

Especially popular was a supposed episode from his early career in which, in a kind of trial by fire, a manuscript written by Dominic that listed the scriptural authorities for Catholic doctrine was cast into the fire by the Albigensians.  The manuscript sprang out of the fire unharmed again and again. 4

The Miracle of the Book
From a Book of Prayers
Flemish (Brussels), c. 1276-1296
London, British Library
MS Harley 2449, fol. 160r


Jacques de Besancon, The Miracle of the Book
From Legenda Aurea by Jacopo de Voragine
French (Paris), c. 1480-1490
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Francais 245, fol. 23r

Dominco Ghirlandaio, Miracle of the Book
Italian, c. 1486-1490
Florence, S. Maria Novella, Tornabuoni Chapel


Pedro Berruguete, Saint Dominic and the Albigensians
Spanish, c. 1493-1499
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado


There are also:

Two Raisings from the Dead

Benozzo Gozzoli, Saint Dominic Raises a Child
Italian, 1461
Milan, Pinacoteca di Brera

Pedro Berruguete, Saint Dominic Raises a Boy
Spanish, c. 1493-1499
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado


Lorenzo Lotto, Saint Dominic Raises Napoleone Orsini
Italian, c. 1513-1516
Bergamo, Accademia Carrara



 A Miraculous Feeding of His Friars by Angels 

Giovanni Antonio Soglianim Saint Dominic and His Friars Fed by Angels
Italian, 1536
Florence, Convent of San Marco


An Apparition by the Blessed Virgin 

During this apparition the Blessed Virgin Mary presented him with the rosary, a prayer discipline that he helped to popularize.
Lorenzo Lotto, Madonna of the Rosary
Italian, c. 1539
Cinoli, Church of San Nicolo

Caravaggio, Madonna of the Rosary
Italian, c. 1607
Vienna, Kunsthistorische Museum

Bernardo Cavallino, Vision of Saint Dominic
Italian, c. 1640-1645
Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada

Follower of Luca Giordano, Virgin of the Rosary
Italian, Late 17th- Early 18th Century
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado


Other Mystical or Symbolic Encounters of Saint Dominic

Visions of Saint Dominic

Santi di Tito, Saints Peter and Paul Appear to Saint Dominic
Italian, c. 1570-1590
Florence, Church of Santa Maria Novella, Great Cloister



Zacarias Gonzalez Velazquez, Vision of Saints Francis of Assisi and Dominic de Guzman
Spanish, c. 1787
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado 



The Miracle of Saint Dominic at Soriano

Paintings on this subject represent the miracle purported to have occurred at the Dominican monastery in Soriano in southern Italy.  In this miracle, three women brought a painting of Saint Dominic to the church on three successive nights.  As the website of the Prado museum states it:

"The episode depicted is that of the miracle that took place in the relatively minor Dominican monastery in Soriano Calabro (Vibo Valentia, Calabria, Italy) on 15 September 1530. On that night, three women appeared to a lay brother and gave him a rolled up canvas of a portrait of Saint Dominic. The mysterious vision took place again over three consecutive nights during which various issues gradually became clear: the women were the Virgin, Saint Catherine of Siena and Mary Magdalene, who had come to the monastery to bring the vera effigie of the founder of the Dominican order as that building lacked a worthy image of the saint. The likeness is described in detail in the Raccolta by Silvestro Frangipane, which is the first account on the monastery in Soriano."5

This became a much favored subject for Spanish and Italian artists of the 17th Century.  

Giovanni Battista Giustammiani known as Il Francesino, Miracle of San Dominic in Soriano
Italian, First Half of 17th Century
Greve in Chianti, Museo di San Francesco

Workshop of Francisco de Zurbaran, Miracle of Saint Dominic in Soriano
Spanish, c. 1626-1627
Seville, Church of Santa Maria Magdalena

Fray Juan Bautista Maino, Miracle of Saint Dominic in Soriano
Spanish, c.  1629
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Matteo Rosselli, Miracle of Saint Dominic in Soriano
Italian, c. 1640
Florence, Church of San Marco

Jacopo Vignali, Miracle of Saint Dominic in Soriano
Italian, c. 1650
Florence, Convent of San Marco

Alonso Cano, Miracle of Saint Dominic in Soriano
Spanish, c. 1652-1657
Indianapolis, Museum of Art

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, The Miracle of Saint Dominic at Soriano with Saint Ambrose
Italian, c. 1655
Genoa, Church of Santa Maria di Castello

Antonio de Pereda, Miracle of Saint Dominic in Soriano
Spanish, c. 1655
Madrid, Museo Cerralbo


Andres Amaya, Miracle of Saint Dominic at Soriano
Spanish, c. 1670-1704
Valladolid, Museo Nacional de Escultura


Images by Fra Angelico

Among the most affecting images of Dominic appear in the paintings by Fra Angelico in the cells of the friars at San Marco in Florence. In many of these paintings the saint appears as a prayerful observer of the event depicted.

Fra Angelico, Crucifixion with Saint Dominic
Italian, 1442
Florence, Convent of San Marco, Cell 17


Fra Angelico, Entombment of Christ
Italian, 1442
Florence, Convent of San Marco, Cell 2


Fra Angelico, The Mocking of Christ
Italian, 1442
Florence, Convent of San Marco, Cell 7



By Other Artists
The same motif appears in the work of other painters as well.

Rogier van der Weyden, Lamentation with Saints Jerome and Dominic and Donor
Flemish, c. 1464
London, National Gallery


Mario Vasaiti, Christ Praying in the Garden with Saints Francis and Dominic
Italian, 1510-1516
Venice, Accademia

Patron and Intercessor
There are also images of St. Dominic as a powerful patron of others.

Hans Memling, Madonna and Child with Saints James and Dominic and Donor Family
Flemish, 1488-1490
Paris, Musée du Louvre


Fernanco Gallego, Madonna of the Catholic Kings Showing Saint Dominic as patron of Queen Isabella and his namesake, Saint Dominic of Silos, as patron of King Ferdinand
Spanish, 1490-1495
Madrid, Museo del Prado


Albrecht Dürer, Feast of the Rose Garlands
German, 1506
Prague, National Gallery


Titian, Madonna and Child with Saints Catherine and Dominic with a Donor
Italian, 1512-1516
Mamiano di Traversetolo, Fondazione Magnani Rocca


Mateo Cerezo, The Judgment of a Soul
Spanish, c. 1663-1664
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
Here Saints Dominic and Francis intercede for the soul of a man who is undergoing the particular judgment.


Apotheosis
And there are many images, appearing rather later in time, of the reception of Saint Dominic in heaven.

Guido Reni, Saint Dominic in Glory
Italian, 1613
Bologna, Church of San Domenico


Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, St. Dominic in Glory
Italian, 1727
Venice, Basilica dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo


Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Apotheosis of St. Dominic
Italian, 1737-1739
Venice, Santa Maria del Rosario

Among them are images of St. Francis and St. Dominic, who never met on earth, embracing.
Andrea della Robbia, Meeting of Saints Dominic and Francis
Italian, 1493-1495
Florence, Convent of San Marco

These two great saints planted seeds in the 13th century that have grown and flourished through the centuries that followed and now, in the 21st century continue the mission of their founders.

_________________________________________
1. Pope Benedict XVI, Catechesis on St. Dominic, February 3, 2010. Translation at : http://www.ewtn.com/library/papaldoc/b16ChrstChrch105.htm

2. Hood, William, "Saint Dominic's Manners of Praying: Gestures in Fra Angelico's Cell Frescoes at S. Marco", Art Bulletin, Volume LXVIII, Number 2, June 1986, pp. 195-206.

3. From Godzdogz, the blog of the English student Domincians at http://godzdogz.op.org/2006/11/what-is-godzdogz.html

4.  The Golden Legend or Lives of the Saints, Volume 4, p. 82.  Compiled by Jacobus de Voragine, Archbishop of Genoa, 1275. First Edition Published 1470. Englished by William Caxton, First Edition 1483, Edited by F.S. Ellis, Temple Classics, 1900 (Reprinted 1922, 1931.) at http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/basis/goldenlegend/GL-vol4-dominic.asp



© M. Duffy, 2012, new images added 2019, additional new images and text added 2022