Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Saint Andrew and Bernini

Duccio, Calling of Saints Peter and Andrew
Italian, 1308-1311
Washington, National Gallery of Art
"As Jesus was walking by the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers,
Simon who is called Peter, and his brother Andrew,
casting a net into the sea; they were fishermen.
He said to them,
"Come after me, and I will make you fishers of men."
At once they left their nets and followed him.
(Matthew 4:18-22)

Thus the New Testament describes the calling of the Bar Jonah brothers, Simon and Andrew. Simon, as we know, went on to acquire a new name, Peter, the leading Apostle and the “Rock” of the Church. Andrew is less well known, at least in the West. It appears from what evidence we have that Andrew’s mission, following the dispersal of the Apostles after Pentecost, was to the regions surrounding the Black Sea, including what is today northern Turkey, southern Russia , the Balkans and Greece. According to tradition, Andrew was martyred in 60 AD in Greece by being tied to a cross. Like his brother, Peter, who suffered his martyrdom in Rome a few years later, Andrew insisted on his own unworthiness to share the same method of execution as Jesus and, therefore, was crucified on a “cross” in the form of the letter X. 1

Jean Fouquet, Martyrdom of Saint Andrew
French, ca. 1450
Chantilly, Musée Condé    

Andrew, as Apostle to the Black Sea area, is considered to be the founder of the Church in Byzantium, which later became the capital of the eastern Roman Empire after its refoundation in 325 by the Emperor Constantine, who renamed it after himself. Consequently, Saint Andrew is the patron of the Eastern Orthodox Church. In the modern period, since the pontificate of John Paul II, the Popes, as successors of St. Peter, and the Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople, as successors of St. Andrew, have exchanged high-level missions to celebrate their feast days of June 29 and November 30 in brotherly fashion.

Camillo Rusconi, Saint Andrew
Italian, 1708-1709
Rome, St. John Lateran

Saint Andrew’s unique crucifixion, on the X-shaped cross, set him apart and also became his most recognizable attribute. It appears in almost every representation of Saint Andrew (with the exception, of course, of those that depict Jesus calling both brothers).

It is the work of one artist/architect in relation to Saint Andrew that I would like to focus on today. The artist is Gianlorenzo Bernini. Bernini is probably best known as an architect and as the designer of the interior of Saint Peter’s basilica.

Gianlorenzo Bernini, Sant' Andrea al Quirinale (exterior)
Italian, 1658-1670

In 1658 Bernini was commissioned by the Jesuits to design a new church, dedicated to Saint Andrew, for their new novitiate on the Quirinal hill.2  Work continued on the building until 1670. Bernini had personal ties to the Society of Jesus, known as the Jesuits, the religious order of men, founded in 1534 by Saint Ignatius Loyola. Bernini attended Mass every day in the Gesù, the mother church of the Jesuits. One of his sons was, for a time, a Jesuit novice. 

In conception this building, like his work in the Cornaro Chapel in the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, is imagined on a cosmic scale, bringing together in one space both earth and heaven. The design of the church may be modeled on the Pantheon, that amazing survivor from the 2nd century, originally a temple to all the gods of Rome, but converted in 609 into the church dedicated to Our Lady and All Martyrs, knwn as Santa Maria Rotonda. Bernini, however, plays with the form and designed S. Andrea as an oval.  The fabric of the building is conceived in such a plastic, organic manner that it almost seems to breathe, as he manipulates its solids and voids, scooping chapels from its substance.
Bernini, Floorplan
Sant' Andrea al Quirinale

The interior is sheathed in marble in greys and pinks, making it one of the prettiest churches in Rome. This, plus its small size, makes it a favorite venue for weddings.3

Bernini, Interior, Sant' Andrea al Quirinale

The painted altarpiece shows Saint Andrew in his final agony on the X-shaped cross.4  But, where most artists and designers would have stopped at that point, Bernini goes further. The altarpiece is lit by light from a hidden window and carried by gilded stucco angels.

Guillaume Courtois, il Borgognone, Martyrdom of Saint Andrew
French, ca. 1660

The whole altar area is framed in a classically inspired aedicule with a broken pediment. Through the break we see Saint Andrew again, bursting, as it were, through the divide between life and eternal glory in heaven.

Bernini, Saint Andrew Ascending to Heaven
Italian, ca. 1660s
Rome, Sant' Andrea al Quirinale

Borne aloft on clouds, all his attention is bent on reaching toward heaven.

Bernini, Dome of Saint Andrea al Quirinale

Heaven, is the dome, divided by rays of gold and filled with figures of angels, including a threshold at the top, from which more small angels peep down.

All leads to the golden dove symbol of the Holy Spirit, which is lit by a circle of windows.

Bernini, Holy Spirit at the top of the dome
Sant'Andrea al Quirinale

Through the work of Bernini we, the living who stand or sit on the ground level of the church, become witnesses to the martyrdom of Saint Andrew and to the flight of his soul into the realm of heaven, events which are happening right before our eyes. "While praying in the oval space of the church, the congregation participates in the miracle of the Saint's salvation." 5 We also become time travelers, witnessing in our own time, events which took place in the 1st century, presented to us by a man of the 17th century. Cosmic indeed!
1.  MacRory, Joseph. "St. Andrew." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 30 Nov. 2011
2.  People are sometimes confused between the words "novitiate" and "novice".  The novitiate is the period of time in which an aspirant to membership in a religious order spends in "formation" (the study of the origin, charism and rule of life of the organization which he or she wishes to join).  A novice is the term used for the candidate him or her self.  Novitiate also refers to the building in which novices live, if it happens to be different from the building in which the "professed" or full members live.
3.  You can take a virtual tour of the church at
4.  The painting itself is the work of the French painter, Guillaume Courtois, known as "Il Borgonone" (the Burgundian).  The stucco work is by the specialist stucco worker, Antonio Raggi.  Bernini employed many assistants, especially those with specialties to assist in executing his conceptions.
5.   Wittkower, Rudolf.  Gian Lorenzo Bernini, the Sculptor of the Roman Baroque, London, The Phaidon Press, Second Edition, 1968, p. 27.

© M. Duffy, 2011

Sunday, November 27, 2011

"Watch!" The First Sunday of Advent, Year B

Jean Cousin the Younger, Last Judgment
French, 1585
Paris, Musee du Louvre

"Jesus said to his disciples:

"Be watchful! Be alert!
You do not know when the time will come.
It is like a man traveling abroad.
He leaves home and places his servants in charge,
each with his own work,
and orders the gatekeeper to be on the watch.
Watch, therefore;
you do not know when the Lord of the house is coming,
whether in the evening, or at midnight,
or at cockcrow, or in the morning.
May he not come suddenly and find you sleeping.
What I say to you, I say to all: 'Watch!'" 
(Mark 13:33-37)

Welcome to the season of Advent, that annually repeating time of preparation for each Christmas that also reminds us of our position in time. We look backward to the long wait of Israel for the Messiah at the same time as we look forward to the day on which He will come again.

The readings for these weeks strike many notes, working backwards through time, as it were. We begin today with a warning about the final Judgment, for the next two weekends we will hear about John the Baptist and, on the final Sunday of Advent, we will hear about the moment of the Incarnation.

Advent images that come to mind focus on the Annunciation and Visitation, the specific advent of the Child Jesus. And we will look at them when we get there. But, for this first week of Advent let’s look at a few images of the Last Judgment.

Autun Cathedral, Gislebertus

The Last Judgment has been a favorite topic for much of the history of western art. It was the image of choice for the tympanum (space between the top of the door and the top of an archway) in many Romanesque and Gothic churches during the Middle Ages. One of the most famous and well-known examples is the tympanum from the Cathedral of St. Lazare at Autun, made between 1130 and 1135. Most unusually for a work of medieval sculpture, the tympanum is signed by the sculptor “Gislebertus hoc fecit” (Gilbert made this). Gislebertus must have been highly respected to be allowed to name himself.

The lively figures surrounding the large figure of Christ in glory tell the story of the last day, when the dead are raised and divided into those who are saved and those who are damned. 

Gislebertus, Last Judgment
Romanesque (French), 1130-1135
Autun, Cathedral of St. Lazare

Among the scenes are those of the interaction between the Archangel Michael and the Devil, as Michael weighs souls in a balance.

Gislebertus, Last Judgment
Detail:  Weighing of Souls
The Devil tries hard to cheat, and gain more souls for himself.

He pulls down on the balance, even as the claws on his feet horrifically grab a frightened soul in the lintel below by the head and begin to drag it toward hell.

Gislebertus, Last Judgment
Detail: Soul Dragged to Hell

Beaune Polyptych, Rogier van der Weyden

Some of these same details appear three hundred years later in the great Last Judgment polyptych (multi-paneled painting) painted by Rogier van der Weyden for the Hotel-Dieu at Beaune in Burgundy.

The Hotel-Dieu was built from 1443-1452 by Nicolas Rolin, Chancellor of the Duchy of Burgundy under Duke Philip the Fair, as a refuge for the sick poor (more like what we would today call a hopice than a modern hospital) during the unsettled century that saw the Hundred Years War and continuing outbreaks of the Black Death.

Rogier van der Weyden, Last Judgment Polyptych
Netherlandish, 1446-1452
Beaune, Hotel Dieu

Here Michael’s weighing of souls takes center stage, directly beneath Christ. As the heavenly court hover above them, the souls of the dead emerge from their graves to face either an angelic welcome into heaven (at the left) or a horrifying descent into hell (at the right).

The Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo

Interesting as these images are, however, they can be said to represent the Judgment already in progress. For an image that can illustrate this Sunday’s warning to ‘Watch!” is the great image of the Last Judgment that Michelangelo produced for the end wall of the Sistine Chapel (1536 - 1541), thirty years after his work on the Sistine ceiling.

Michelangelo Buonarotti, Last Judgment
Italian, c, 1536-1541
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

In its dynamic image we see, as it were, the Last Judgment at the moment “when the lord of the house is coming” (Mark 13:35). There is an immediacy and an urgency as Christ breaks once more into the terrestrial world, the dead rise from their graves and the judgment takes place. Those who are to be saved are assisted by angels and the blessed to reach heaven, while angels and the blessed resist those who are damned but are trying to escape their punishment.

Michelangelo Buonarotti, Jesus the Judge
Italian, c, 1536-1541
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo Buonarotti, Angels with Instruments of the Passion
Italian, c, 1536-1541
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo Buonarotti, Angels with Instruments of the Passion
Italian, c, 1536-1541
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo Buonarotti, Detail of the Blessed to Christ's Right
Italian, c, 1536-1541
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo Buonarotti, Detail of the Blessed to Christ's Left
Italian, c, 1536-1541
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo Buonarotti, Blessed Souls Ascending to Heaven
Italian, c, 1536-1541
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo Buonarotti, Michael and Other Angels Defending Heaven Against the Damned
Italian, c, 1536-1541
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo Buonarotti, Trumpeting Angels and Angels with the Books of Records
Italian, c, 1536-1541
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo Buonarotti, The Damned Being Delivered to Hell by Charon
Italian, c, 1536-1541
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo Buonarotti, The Dead Rising from their Graves
Italian, c, 1536-1541
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

To the right of center is a figure whose horror at being pulled down to hell is reminiscent of the little soul from Autun whose head was gripped by the Devil’s claws.

Michelangelo Buonarotti, Soul Being Pulled Down to Hell
Italian, c, 1536-1541
Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

Images of the Last Judgment seem to have tapered off after about 1600, perhaps replaced by a greater emphasis on the particular judgment that follows each individual death than with the general judgment of the final days. But, at Advent each year, the Church reminds us of that still-to-come last act in salvation history and of its byword “Watch!”

© M. Duffy, 2011, new images added 2023

Monday, November 21, 2011

"Hail Bright Cecilia!" -- Great Patroness of Harmony

Carlo Saraceni, Saint Cecilia and the Angel
Italian, ca. 1610
Rome, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica

"Saint Cecilia kept the Gospel of Christ ever near her heart; day and night she never ceased praying and speaking with God."

Antiphon for Evening Prayer on the Feast of Saint Cecilia

Although we have few concrete details about her life and martyrdom, Cecilia of Rome has been one of the most popular saints of the Church in all the centuries since the 4th.

The date of her martyrdom is uncertain. It may be as early as the time of Marcus Aurelius in the mid-2nd century or as late as the time of Diocletian in the early 4th, only about 10 years before the Edict of Milan gave recognition to the Christian Church.

What we do know is that, as early as the years immediately after the Edict of Milan, she was one of the most respected of the Roman martyrs. What was probably her home was one of the early Roman “house churches”, called tituli. And, by the 5th century her name is among the list of martyrs cited in the Roman Canon, the principal Eucharistic Prayer of the Mass, along with other male and female saints, such as Lawrence, Clement, Sixtus, Cornelius, Agnes, Anastasia, Felicity and Perpetua. 1

Carlo Saraceni, Execution of Saint Cecilia
Italian, ca. 1610
Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Her name, Cecilia, derives (as the names of Roman women always did) from her family name, in this case the Caecilii (for a male family member the form would be Caecilius, which survives in the English given name, Cecil). Presumably, Saint Cecilia was a member of this prominent, noble, old Roman family. She undoubtedly also had another, personal name, which is now lost.

Legends surround her life and death, although it is entirely possible that some of them may, in fact, be true. We simply don’t have the documentation to know for sure. The best-known tale is that as a young bride, vowed to perpetual virginity, she converted both her husband and brother-in-law, themselves prominent Romans, to the Christian faith and that, for this reason, both they and she suffered martyrdom.

Master of the Pesaro Crucifix, Saint Cecilia of Rome and Her Husband, Valerian, Being Crowned by an Angel
Italian, c. 1375-1380
Philadelphia, Museum of Art

By tradition the first attempt at killing her was to suffocate her in a hot bath. I had always thought this was a weird way to kill someone until I learned that the Empress Fausta, Constantine’s second wife, was reported to have been killed by this technique. Perhaps it was a Roman way to execute high born women. However, while it may have succeeded with Fausta, in Cecilia’s case it failed. Instead, she was killed by a more conventional manner, beheading.

The chosen executioner must have been incompetent because, according to tradition, he hacked at her neck three times, wounding her, but leaving her still alive. Such an incomplete beheading might well have left her alive and conscious, though probably at least partly paralyzed, for some time.

According to the story, she lived for three days, giving her enough time to make gifts to the poor of Rome and to donate her residence to the Church. It is certainly possible that this event may actually have happened, although the three days may be more a reference to the Passion and Resurrection of Christ than to a real time span. However, a slow death lasting from several hours to one or two days could be reasonable. Legend has it that she also sang hymns during this time, which, while remotely possible, is unlikely. 2

Luc Olivier Merson, The Dying Saint Cecilia Distributing Her Wealth to the Poor of Rome
Design for a Window
French, 1886
Paris, Musée d'Orsay

Her body was buried in a place of honor in the catacomb of St. Callistus.

Luis de Madrazo y Kuntz, Burial of Saint Cecilia in the Catacomb of Saint Callistus
Spanish, 1852
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

In the 4th century a church was constructed above what probably had been her home, the titulus Caeciliae, now known as Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. Remains of the original Roman buildings have been found under the church foundations and can be visited. 
Facade, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere
Italian, 5th through 19th centuries
Rome, Piazza Santa Cecilia

In the 9th century, coinciding with the renovation of the church, her body was removed from the catacomb and placed in the church.

The church has been renovated several times, most recently in the 19th century.

In connection with one of these renovations, in 1599, her remains were examined and found to be intact. The sculptor Stefano Maderno was commissioned to carve a statue recording how it looked. He engraved a marble plaque testifying that he had reproduced exactly what he had seen. In translation it reads:
"Behold the body of the most holy virgin Cecilia, whom I myself saw lying incorrupt in the tomb. I have in this marble expressed for you the same saint in the very same posture".

Stefano Maderno, Tomb of Saint Cecilia
Italian, 1600
Rome, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere

Maderno’s white marble figure lies in front of the main altar of the church (which is crowned with a beautiful baldachino by Arnolfo da Cambio, which dates to around 1290). It gives dramatic testimony to Cecilia’s death. She lies, face down, on her right side. Her hair is thrown forward, revealing the deep cuts in her neck. Her fingers have been arranged to deliver a message. Three fingers of her right hand are extended, as is one finger of her left. She is signaling belief in the mystery of the Trinity, of the Three in One.

Stefano Maderno, Saint Cecilia (detail)

This elegant and moving white sculpture is strikingly set into a stone framework of brilliant blue lapis lazuli, with gilded decorations of angels and the figures of other, related, saints. It stands at the beginning of the Baroque period, with its emphasis on presenting the reality of the suffering of the martyrs. 3

Stefano Maderno, St. Cecilia
Rome, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere

However, it is her association with singing and, by extension with all music, for which she is chiefly remembered. It has made her the patron saint of music and musicians and one of the best known subjects in the history of art.

Her connection to music is very old.  However, many early pictures depicted the scenes of her life, without any reference to music.

Master of Saint Cecilia, Saint Cecilia Altarpiece
Italian, c. 1304
Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi
The smaller pictures on the sides depict the life of Saint Cecilia and her first martyrdom (execution by hot bath).  There are no references to music.

A series of pictures in the fifteenth century depict her with a bird, probably reflecting that by this time she was associated with singing.
Masters of  Zweder van Culenborg, Saint Cecilia with a Bird
From a Book of Hours
Dutch (Utrecht), c. 1430-1435
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliotheek
MS KB 79 K 2, fol. 264v

Master of Catherine of Cleves, Saints Agnes of Rome and Cecilia of Rome
From a Prayer Book
Dutch (Utrecht), 1438
The Hague, Museum Meermano
MS RMMW 10 E 1, fol. 89v

Attributed to the Painter of the Brunswick Diptych, Saint Cecilia
Dutch, c. 1490-1500
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum

Saints Agnes of Rome and Cecilia of Rome
From a Prayer Book
Flemish (Malines), c. 1500-1510
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliotheek
MS KB 71 G 53, fol. 96v

Cornelis Engebrechtszoon, Saint Cecilia and Her Fiance
Dutch, c. 1518-1520
Budapest, Szépmûvészeti Múzeum

However, by the sixteenth century, the principle attribute of Saint Cecilia is a musical instrument.  Organs have prime place, first as small portative organs and later, as the organ developed, case instruments.  But, unlike Maderno’s simply clad figure, or the simple image of the early pictures, most of these turn her into a fantasy figure. She appears in various headgear and dress, often very elaborate and exotic

Master of the Saint Bartholemew Altar, Saints Agnes, Bartholomew and Cecilia
German, c. 1500-1505
Munich, Alte Pinakothek

Raphael. Saint Cecilia Altarpiece
Italian, 1514
Bologna, Pinacoteca Nazionale

Saint Cecilia
Flemish, c. 1550-1560
Antwerp, Museum Mayer van den Bergh

Jacopo Vignali, Saint Cecilia
Italian, 1562
Dublin, National Gallery of Ireland
Here what appear to be two ladies of Cecilia's own class, turn out, on second look, to be two angels.

Michiel Coxie, Saint Cecilia
Flemish,  1569
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Antiveduto della Grammatica, Saint Cecilia
Italian, After 1611
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Orazio Gentileschi and Giovanni Lanfranco, Saint Cecilia and an Angel
Italian, c. 1617-1618 and c. 1621-1627
Washington, National Gallery of Art

Guercino, Saint Cecilia
Italian, c. 1620-1640
Paris, Musée du Louvre

Guillaume Perrier, Saint Cecilia with an Angel
French, c. 1630-1640
Lyon, Musée des Beaux-Arts

Pietro da Cortona, Saint Cecilia
Italian, c. 1620-1626
London, National Gallery

Jacques Stella, Saint Cecilia
French, 1626
Rennes, Musée des Beaux-Arts

Nicolas Poussin, Saint Cecilia
French, c. 1635
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Peter Paul Rubens, Saint Cecilia
Flemish, c. 1639-1640
Berlin, Gemäldegalerie der Staatliche Museen zu Berlin

Jacques Blanchard, Saint Cecilia
French, 1630s
St. Petersburg, Hermitage Museum

Jacques Stella, Saint Cecilia Playing the Organ
French, c. 1640
Paris, Musédu Louvre

Arnould de Vuez, Saint Cecilia
Flemish, c. 1700-1720
Lille, Palais des Beaux-Arts

Paul Delaroche, Saint Cecilia and the Angels
French, 1836
London, Victoria and Albert Museum

Edward Burne-Jones, Saint Cecilia
English, 1890s
Private Collection

John Melhuish Strudwick, Saint Cecilia
English, 1896
Liverpool (UK), Sudley House

Numerous other paintings also honor her, depicting her with a variety of instruments.  .Here too she appears as an exotic. An angel or angels may be in attendance as well.

Guido Reni, Saint Cecilia
Italian, 1606
Pasadena, Norton Simon Museum

Artemisia Gentileschi, Saint Cecilia
Italian, ca. 1616
Rome, Galleria Spada

Domenichino, Saint Cecilia with an Angel Holding a Musical Score
Italian, c. 1617-1618
Paris, Musée de Louvre

Bernardo Cavallino, Saint Cecilia
Italian, c. 1645
Boston, Musseum of Fine Arts

Francesco Solimena, Saint Cecilia
Italian, c. 1740
Pommersfelden (DE), Schloss Weissenstein

Luigi Vanvitelli, Saint Cecilia
Italian, c. 1750
Bradford (UK), Cartwright Hall Art Gallery

Occasionally scenes from her life, especially of her martyrdom were depicted.  Sometimes her husband and fellow martyr, Valerianus, and his brother, Tiburtius, also martyred, appear with her.
Domenichino, Saint Cecilia Before the Judge Refuses to Sacrifice to Idols
Italian, c. 1612-1615
Rome, San Luigi dei Francesi, Cappella Polet

Martyrdom of Saint Cecilia
From a Book of Hours
Spanish, 17th Century
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Latin 10565, fol. 92v

Orazio Gentileschi, Sts. Cecilia, Valerianus and Tiburtius
Italian, ca. 1620
Milan, Brera Gallery

Claude Michel, known as Clodion, Death of Saint Cecilia
French, c. 1776-1777
Rouen, Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chapel of Saint Nicolas

Johann Evangelist Scheffer von Leonharshoff, Death of Saint Cecilia
Austrian, 1820-1822
Vienna, Belvedere Museum

Etienne Gautier, Dead Saint Cecilia
French, c. 1878
Paris, Musée d'Orsay

Francesco Francia, Burial of Saint Cecilia
Italian, c. 1504-1506
Bologna, Church of San Giacomo Maggiore, Oratory of Saint Cecilia,

In addition, she has been honored in many musical compositions, such as the 1692 “Ode to Saint Cecilia” by Henry Purcell (closing chorus below). Her name appears in the names of not only churches, but in the Academia di Santa Cecilia in Rome, organized in 1585 as a musicians guild, as well as in numerous contemporary choral groups, orchestras, concert series. She is commemorated on November 22nd.

Hail! Bright Cecilia, Hail to thee!
Great Patroness of Us and Harmony!
Who, whilst among the Choir above
Thou dost thy former Skill improve,
With Rapture of Delight dost see
Thy Favourite Art
Make up a Part
Of infinite Felicity.
Hail! Bright Cecilia, Hail to thee!
Great Patroness of Us and Harmony!
1. Kirsch, Johann Peter. "St. Cecilia." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908.

2. The Golden Legend or Lives of the Saints. Compiled by Jacobus de Voragine, Archbishop of Genoa, 1275. First Edition Published 1470. Englished by William Caxton, First Edition 1483, Edited by F.S. Ellis, Temple Classics, 1900 (Reprinted 1922, 1931.)

3. Wittkower, Rudolf. Art and Architecture in Italy, 1600 to 1750, Pelican History of Art, Baltimore, Penguin Books, 1965, p. 84.

© M. Duffy, 2011, updated 2017